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All citations (chapter:note number)

Prologue:1 Rous, P. "A transmissible avian neoplasm: Sarcoma of the common fowl." J. Exp. Med. 12:696, 1910.

Prologue:2 Watson, J. D., and Crick, F. H. C. "Molecular structure of nucleic acids." Nature 171:737, April 25, 1953.

Prologue:3 Judson, H. F. The Eighth Day of Creation. 1979. Touchstone: New York. It would require a longer article in Naturebefore the double helix was fully accepted (Watson, J. D., and Crick, F. H. C. "Genetical implications of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid." Nature 171:964. May 30, 1953].

Prologue:4 Temin, H.M., "The effects of actinomycin D on growth of Rous Sarcoma Virus in vitro." Virology 20:577, 1963.

Prologue:5 JAMA 272,2: 166-167, July 13, 1994. Recently, a Seattle company had to pay $21 million and surrender its patents after a group of Harvard researchers alleged that company scientists assigned by Nature to review their unpublished article had stolen their data ("Suit Alleges Misuse of Peer Review." Science 270:1912, December 22, 1995).

Prologue:6 Baltimore, D. "Viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase." Nature 226:1209, June 27, 1970; Temin, H. M., and Mizutani, S. "RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus." Nature 226:1211, June 27, 1970.

Prologue:7 "New RNA Research is Reported to Aid Cancer-Virus Study." New York Times, July 14, 1970.

Prologue:8 "Triumph for a heretic." Newsweek, July 20, 1970.

Prologue:9 "Nixon signs cancer bill; cites commitment to cure." New York Times, December 24, 1971.

Prologue:10Watson, J. D. "The cancer conquerors." New Republic, February 26, 1972, 17.

Prologue:11"Viruses and cancer." Time, April 8, 1974.

Prologue:12 Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

1:1Gottlieb, M. S., et al. "Pneumocystis pneumonia -- Los Angeles." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 30:250 - 2; June 5, 1981.

1:2 Medical World News, August 16, 1982, 8 - 9.

1:3 Gallo, R. C., et al. "RNA dependent DNA polymerase of human acute leukemic cells." Nature 229:927. December 5, 1970.

1:4 "Finding a cancer clue." Time, December 5, 1970.

1:5 Scolnick, E. M., et al. "RNA Dependent DNA Polymerase Activity in Mammalian Cells." Nature 229:318, January 29, 1971.

1:6 Priori, E. S., et al. "Constant production of type C virus particles in a continuous tissue culture derived from pleural effusion cells of a lymphoma patient." Nature New Biol, July 14,1971, 232:61-62.

1:7 Schmeck, H. M., Jr. "Detective story--and the stakes are high." New York Times Week in Review, July 11, 1971.

1:8 Gallo, R. C., et al. "Reverse transcriptase in type C virus particles of human origin." Nature New Biol, 232:140 - 142.

1:9 Gilden, R. V. et al. "Murine leukaemia virus group-specific antigen in the C-type virus-containing cell line, ESP-1." Nature 233:102 - 103. September 10, 1971.

1:10 Axel, R., et al. "Presence in human breast cancer of RNA homologous to mouse mammary tumour virus RNA." Nature, 235 (5332): 32-6. January 7, 1972; "3 Types of Cancers in Humans Linked to Animal Cancer Virus." New York Times, January 15, 1972.

1:11For more than a decade, Spiegelman and his postdocs, including Jeff Schlom, Richard Axel and Don Kufe, all of whom went on to distinguished careers of their own at Columbia, NCI and Harvard, pursued the elusive breast cancer virus. Spiegelman's last paper on that topic, "Properties of retrovirus-like particles produced by a human breast carcinoma cell line: immunological relationship with mouse mammary tumor virus proteins" (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jul;81(13):4188-92), appeared in 1984, a year after his death. No breast cancer virus has ever been found.

1:12Doubtless unbeknownst to the Maharaj Ji, J. Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus at the University of California in San Francisco already were in the process of establishing that many cancers were the product of mutations in normal genes—i.e., life itself--which then triggered the wild proliferation of previously healthy cells--i.e., cancer--or else failed in their mission to suppress such proliferations.

1:13 Remnick, D. "Robert Gallo goes to war." Washington Post Magazine, August 9, 1987.

1:14 Gallagher, R. E., and Gallo, R. C. "Type C RNA tumor virus isolated from cultured human acute myelogenous leukemia cells." Science 187:350, January 31, 1975.

1:15 "Virus linked to human cancer believed isolated by scientists." Washington Post, January 9, 1975.

1:16The article was accepted by Science on January 6, 1975, three days before the article summarizing its findings appeared in the Washington Post.

1:17 Teich, N. M., et al. "Infective transmission and characterisation of a C-type virus released by cultured human myeloid leukaemia cells." Nature 256:551, August 14, 1975.

1:18 Okabe, H., et al. "Immunological and biochemical characterisation of type C viruses isolated from cultured human AML cells." Nature 260:264; Chan, E., et al. "Characterisation of a virus (HL23V) isolated from cultured acute Myelogenous leukaemic cells." Nature 260:266. March 18, 1976.

1:19 Morgan, D. A., et al. "Selective in vitro growth of T lymphocytes from normal human bone marrows." Science 193:1007, September 10, 1976.

1:20Ruscetti, F., et al. "Functional and morphological characterization of human T cells continuously grown in vitro." J. Immunol. 119(1):131 - 138, July 1, 1977.

1:21 Gazdar, A. F. "Mitogen requirements for the in vitro propagation of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas." Blood, vol. 55, no. 3409. March 1980.

1:22Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune; November 19, 1989. Poiesz, B.J., et al. "T-cell lines established from human T-lymphocytic neoplasias by direct response to T-cell growth factor." PNAS 77:11,6815-6819, November 1980. In addition to HUT-102, Poiesz established his own continuous culture of Charlie Robinson's cells, which he called CTCL-3.

1:23Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

1:24Van der Loo, E. M., et al. "C-type virus-like particles specifically localized in langerhans cells and related cells of skin and lymph nodes of patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary's syndrome." Arch. B Cell Path. 31:192-203, 1979.

1:25 Uchiyama, T., et al. "Adult T-cell leukemia: clinical and hematological features of 16 cases." Blood 50:3, 481, September 1977.

1:26Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

1:27 Bishop, J. M. "The molecular biology of RNA tumor viruses: A physician's guide." N. Engl. J. Med. , 303:12, 675. September 18, 1980. The lecture on which the article was based was first delivered by Bishop in 1979.

1:28 Reitz, M. S., Jr., et al. "Characterization and distribution of nucleic acid sequences of a novel type C retrovirus isolated from neoplastic human T lymphocytes." PNAS 78:3,1887. March 1981. Communicated by David Baltimore, November 10, 1980.

1:29 Yamaguchi, K. "Human T-lymphotropic virus type I in Japan." Lancet, 343:213, January 22, 1994.

1:30 Posner, L. E., et al. "Natural antibodies to the human T cell lymphoma virus in patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma." J. Exp. Med. 154: 333 - 348, August 1981.

1:31 Poiesz, B. J., et al. "Isolation of a new type C retrovirus (HTLV) in primary uncultured cells of a patient with Sezary T-cell leukaemia." Nature 294:268, November 19, 1981.

1:32Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

1:33 Miyoshi, I., et al. "A novel T-cell line derived from adult T-cell leukemia." GANN 71:155 - 156, February 1980. Miyoshi's paper appeared in print a month before Adi Gazdar's report of HUT-102.

1:34 Miyoshi, I., et al. "A T-cell line derived from normal human cord leukocytes by co-culturing with human leukemic T-Cells." GANN 72:978 - 981, December 1981. Received May 28, 1981. The paper reports that the MT-2 cell line was established via co-culture two months after creation of the primary patient culture in November 1979, which would date MT-2 from January 1980.

1:35 R. Gallo to V. DeVita, September 8, 1981.

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1:36 Yoshida, M., et al. "Isolation and characterization of retrovirus from cell lines of human adult T-cell leukemia and its implication in the disease." PNAS 79:2031, March 1982. Communicated November 23, 1981.

1:37J. Mason to P. Gill, July 25, 1985.

1:38Gallo, R. Virus Hunting. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

1:39Popovic, M., et al. "The virus of Japanese adult T-cell leukaemia is a member of the human T-cell leukaemia virus group." Nature 300:63, November 4, 1982.

1:40Kalyanaraman, V. S., et al. "Immunological properties of a type C retrovirus isolated from cultured human T-lymphoma cells and comparison to other mammalian retroviruses." J. of Virology, 906-915, June 1981. The article states that HTLV-related sequences from the fresh T-cells of two leukemia patients, a child and a woman, would appear in "Poiesz et al., submitted for publication."

1:41 Karpas, A., et al. "Studies of adult T-cell leukemia viruses (ATLV) in relation to ATL in Japanese and blacks, mycosis fungoides (Sezary syndrome [MF/SS] and AIDS." British J. of Haematology 58, 176, 1984.

1:42J. Nagington to I. Munro, March 23, 1983.

1:43Seiki, M., et al. "Human adult T-cell virus: Complete nucleotide sequence of the provirus genome integrated in leukemia cell DNA." PNAS 80:3618, June 1983.

1:44 Watanabe, T., et al. "HTLV type I (US isolate) and ATLV (Japanese isolate) are the same species of human retrovirus." Virology 133: 238 - 241, February 1984.

1:45 Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F. "Retroviruses as etiologic agents of some animal and human leukemias and lymphomas and as tools for elucidating the molecular mechanism of leukemogenesis." Blood 60:3, 545 - 557, September 1982.

1:47R. Gallo to R. Kulstad, April 18, 1983.

1:48Weiss, R., et al. "RNA tumor viruses: Molecular biology of tumor viruses." Second Edition: 2/Supplements and Appendixes. Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1984.

1:49Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

1:50Tajima, K., and Kuroishi, T. "Estimation of rate of incidence of ATL among ATLV (HTLV-1) carriers in Kyushu, Japan." Jpn J Clin Oncol 1985; 15:423-30.

1:51Wyngaarden, J. “Nomination for National Medal of Science,” undated.

1:52Lewin, R. "New reports of a human leukemia virus." Science 214:530, October 30, 1981.

1:53"7 Medical Experts Win Lasker Prizes." New York Times, November 18, 1982

1:54Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

1:55Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

2:1Hinuma, Y., et al. "Adult T-cell leukemia; antigen in an ATL cell line and detection of antibodies to the antigen in human sera." PNAS 78:10, 6476, October, 1981 (communicated by Werner Henle, June 26, 1981).

2:2 Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

2:3 Essex., M., et al. "Antibodies to cell membrane antigens associated with human T-cell leukemia virus in patients with AIDS." Science 220:859, May 20, 1984.

2:4 Essex, M., and Klein, G. "Correlation between humoral antibody and regression of tumors induced by feline sarcoma virus." Nature 233:195, September 17, 1971.

2:5 Saxinger, C., et al. "Detection of antigen related to feline leukemia virus in the sera of virus-negative cats." 1980. Feline Leukemia Virus. North Holland: Elsevier, 489 - 496.

2:6 Minutes of the National Cancer Institute's Ad Hoc Committee on the "W. Prensky - SKI Problem," July 12, 1982.

2:7 R. Gallo telephone interview with the author, September 26, 1988.

2:8 Vedbrat, S., et al. "Feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen: A viral and not a cellularly coded transformation-specific antigen of cat lymphomas." Virology 124: 445 - 461, 1983 (received June 9, 1982; accepted September 10, 1982).

2:9 E. Gelmann to H. Masur, November 3, 1982.

2:10 Medical World News, pp. 8-9, August 16, 1982.

2:11 MacPherson, I., and Montagnier, L. "Agar suspension culture for the selective assay of cells transformed by polyoma virus." Virology 23:291, 1964.

2:12 Barré-Sinoussi, F., et al. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) , 130B:349 - 362 (1979).

2:13 F. Barré-Sinoussi lab notes, January 15, 1983.

2:14 In his book Virus (W.W. Norton & Company: New York, 2000), Montagnier dates the EMs as having been made on February 4, 1983.

2:15 R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, January 22, 1980.

2:16L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, February 2, 1983.

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2:17 F. Barré-Sinoussi lab notes, February 4, 1983.

2:18 F. Barré-Sinoussi lab notes, February 9, 1983.

2:19 L. Montagnier lab notes, March 10, 1983.

2:20 Leibowitch, J. "Compte rendu de la journée de virologie au meeting de Cold Spring Harbor, le Mardi 08 Février."

2:21 J. Gutterman to Gallo, November 23, 1982.

2:22 E. Richardson lab notes for sample "G.W.," February 17, 1983; March 24, 1983.

2:23 LTCB specimen records, February 9, 1983.

2:24 F. Brun-Vezinét to the author, March 20, 1995.

2:25 "Report on the Talks with Dr. Robert Gallo Wednesday the 9th and Thursday the 10th of February, 1983."

2:26 P. Sarin notes, April 19, 1983.

2:27 Andreani, T., et al. "Acquired immunodeficiency with intestinal cryptosporidiosis: possible transmission by Haitian whole blood." Lancet, p. 1187, May 28, 1983.

2:28R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, February 17, 1983.

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2:29Kulstad, R. M. "Publishing AIDS papers." In: AIDS and the Public Debate: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. 1996. IOS Press: Burke, VA.

2:30 P. Fischinger to The Record, May 6, 1983; F. Murphy to J. Mason, October 12, 1984.

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2:31 A. Woods to L. Montagnier, February 28, 1983.

2:32 L. Montagnier lab notes, March 8, 1983.

2:33Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

2:34 Barré-Sinoussi, F., et al. "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)." Science , 220:868, May 20, 1983.

2:35Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

2:36Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

2:37Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

2:38 Essex, M., et al. "Antibodies to cell membrane antigens associated with human T-cell leukemia virus in patients with AIDS." Science 220:859, May 20, 1983 (received March 24, 1983; revised April 11, 1983); Gelmann, E. P., et al. "Proviral DNA of a retrovirus, Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus, in Two Patients with AIDS." Science 220:862, May 20, 1983 (received March 3, 1983; revised April 18, 1983); Gallo, R. C., et al. "Isolation of human T-cell leukemia virus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)." Science 220:865, May 20, 1983 (received April 19, 1983); Barré-Sinoussi, F., et al. "Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)." Science 220:868, May 20, 1983 (received April 19, 1983).

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2:39 Office of Cancer Communications, National Cancer Institute, May 12, 1983.

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2:40 M. Essex to D. Francis, September 21, 1983; "Detection of cancer virus is called a strong clue to the cause of AIDS." Washington Post, May 13, 1983.

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2:41 "Planning more research on AIDS." Nature, 303:377, June 2, 1983.

2:42 "Rare cancer-causing virus linked to AIDS." Philadelphia Inquirer, May 13, 1983.

2:43 J. M. Dupe to R. Gallo, May 30, 1983; S. Sprecher to R. Gallo, May 31, 1983; R. Downing to Gallo, June 1, 1983; D. Michaeli to R. Gallo, June 2, 1983.

2:44 Washington Post, May 13, 1983. See also: Marx, J. "Human T-cell leukemia virus linked to AIDS." Science , 220:806, May 20, 1983.

2:45 R. Gallo to Y. Ito, May 17, 1983.

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2:46Montagnier, L. Virus. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

2:47 Barré-Sinoussi, F. "Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)." Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., May 27, 1983.

2:48 Confidential interview with Office of the Inspector General, Department of Health and Human Services, August 5, 1993.

2:49Affidavit of F. Barré-Sinoussi to SOI, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, December 14, 1993.

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2:50 J. Curran notes, June 3, 1983.

2:51 D. Francis to F. Barré-Sinoussi, June 14, 1983.

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2:52 L. Montagnier lab notes, June 9, 1983.

2:53 F. Barré-Sinoussi lab notes, June 14, 1983.

2:54 Montagnier, L., et al. "Isolation of a new retrovirus from a patient at risk of AIDS." Presented June 18, 1983. Proceedings of the First German Round-Table Discussion on AIDS and Its Implication in Hemophiliacs. Stuttgart: Schattauer Verlag.

2:55 "Human 'T' leukemia virus still suspected in AIDS." JAMA 250:8, 1015, August 28, 1983. (The interview was conducted on June 22, 1983).

2:56 R. Gallo to G. Klein, July 8, 1983.

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2:57Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

2:58 R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, June 29, 1983.

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2:59 A. Karpas to the author, December 29, 1992.

3:1 Montagnier, L., et al. "A new human T-lymphotropic retrovirus: characterization and possible role in lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndromes." Presented at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, September 15, 1983. In: Gallo RC, et al. Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1984.

3:2 Rouzioux, C. "Thèse pour l'obtention du grade de docteur de l'université de Paris-sud," July 12, 1985. According to Rouzioux's thesis, seven of fifty-one AIDS patient blood samples contained antibodies to HTLV-1.

3:3 A. Saimot to R. Gallo, July 12, 1983.

3:4 C. Rouzioux lab notes, July 13, 1983.

3:5 F. Brun-Vézinet lab notes, July 14, 1983.

3:6 Rouzioux, C. Op. cit., p. 66.

3:7 R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, July 8, 1983.

3:8 Unsigned Pasteur lab notes, July 16, 1983. The notes also state that three tubes of BRU serum were given to Montagnier "for Gallo."

3:9 Certificate of deposit, Collection Nationale de Cultures de Microorganismes, July 15, 1983.

3:10 "Research Agreement between Institut Pasteur and National Institutes of Health," July 15, 1983.

3:11 L. Montagnier to the author, July 19, 1996.

3:12 R. Gallo to OSI, May 25, 1990.

3:13 "Minutes of NCI-AIDS Advisory Group," July 18, 1983.

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3:14 Remarks of Dr. G. Quinnan, FDA Blood Products Advisory Committee meeting, July 19, 1983.

3:15 M. Gonda to R. Gallo, July 19, 1990.

3:16 J. Curran notes, July 18, 1983.

3:17 "PHS Weekly Report on AIDS Developments," July 20, 1983.

3:18 J. Curran notes, July 18, 1983.

3:19 L. Montagnier to the author, September 8, 1994.

3:20 Popovic, M., et al. "The virus of Japanese adult T-cell leukaemia is a member of the human T-cell leukaemia virus group." Nature 300 (5887):63 - 66, November 4, 1982.

3:21 Popovic, M., et al. "Isolation and transmission of human retrovirus (human T-cell leukemia virus)." Science 219 (4586):856 - 859, February 18, 1983.

3:22 E. Richardson to OSI, June 28, 1990; M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

3:23 In a December 11, 1985, letter to Gallo, a researcher at one of Gallo's contract laboratories, Electronucleonics, advised that "we were never able to maintain a successful culture of W3731 in vitro over the period of May 9 through July 20, 1983."

3:24 S. Salahuddin lab notes, May 25 - September 30, 1983.

3:25 M. Popovic to OSI, March 4, 1990.

3:26 Klatzmann, D., et al. "Immune status of AIDS patients in France: Physiological consequences." Unpublished manuscript (submitted to Nature July 20, 1983).

3:27"Why we won't be silenced." The Times, London, December 12, 1993.

3:28 Interview with J. Maddox, London, September 6, 1990.

3:29W. Blattner to J. Curran, June 2, 1983; W. Dowdle to J. Mason, June 7, 1984.

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3:30 "Detection of cancer virus is called a strong clue to the cause of AIDS." Washington Post, May 13, 1983.

3:31 R. Gallo to J. Curran, June 3, 1983.

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3:32C. Cabradilla to R. Gallo, June 23, 1983.

3:33 P. Fischinger to R. Gordon, July 1, 1983.

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3:34 R. Gallo to D. Francis and J. Curran, August 17, 1983; R. Gallo to J. Curran, August 23, 1983.

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3:35D. Francis telephone notes, July 24, 1983.

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3:36 CDC "Calendar of Events June 1983 - June 1984."

3:37 R. Gallo to D. Francis, August 3, 1983.

3:38D. Francis to Gallo, September 16, 1983, and P. Feorino to Gallo, September 27, 1983.

3:39 D. Purtilo to G. Lundberg, July 19, 1983.

3:40 D. Purtilo to A. Karpas, December 13, 1983.

3:41 Purtilo, D. T., et al. "Human T cell leukemia virus-1 antibodies not detected in AIDS." AIDS Research. 1(4):237 - 241, 1983 - 84.

3:42F. Brun-Vézinet lab notes, August 5, 1983.

3:43 L. Montagnier to M. Douzou et al, August 29, 1983; L. Montagnier to M. le Premier Ministre, August 23, 1983.

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3:44 Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

3:45 R. Gallo to A.-M. Couroucé, October 6, 1983.

3:46 A. Sliski to S. Broder, July 5, 1983.

3:47 R. Gallo to R. Gilden, August 15, 1983.

3:48 R. Gallo to V. DeVita, August 4, 1983.

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3:49 R. Gallo to S. Sprecher and A. G. Saimot, August 4, 1983; R. Gallo to N. Clumeck and H. Paelman, October 11, 1983.

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3:50 "Further Link Found to AIDS, Cancer Virus." Philadelphia Inquirer, September 2, 1983.

3:51Essex, M., et al. "Antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus membrane antigens (HTLV-MA) in hemophiliacs." Science 221:1061 - 1064. September 9, 1983; Evatt, B., et al. "Antibodies to human T-cell leukaemia virus-associated membrane antigens in haemophiliacs: Evidence for infection before 1980." Lancet 2(8352):698 – 700. September 24, 1983.

3:52 G. Winchester to L. Montagnier, September 12, 1983.

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3:53 "Proceedings of the human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus meeting," September 13 - 17, 1983. In Gallo, R. C., et al. Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1984.

3:54 Gallo, R.C. "The First Human Retroviruses, including Leukemia/Lymphoma Viruses." Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, September 14, 1983. In Gallo R. C., et al. Op. cit.

3:55R. Weiss to R. Gallo, November 16, 1983.

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3:56 Essex, M., et al. "Distribution of antibodies to HTLV-MA in patients with AIDS and related control groups." Presented at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, September 15, 1983. In Gallo, R. C., et al. Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1984.

3:57 "Cancer Virus is Seen as AIDS Cause." Boston Globe, September 16, 1983.

3:58 L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, September 2, 1983.

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3:59 Montagnier, L., et al. "A new human T-lymphotropic retrovirus: Characterization and possible role in lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndromes." Presented at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, September 15, 1983. In Gallo, R. C., et al. Human T-cell Leukemia Viruses. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1984.

3:60LAV/Eli, September 3, 1983.

3:61Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

3:62Montagnier, L., Virus. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.

3:63Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

3:64Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

3:65 R. Gallo to F. Deinhardt, P. Hofschneider, H. zur Hausen, et al., September 27 - 28, 1983.

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3:66 M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

3:67 M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

3:68 M. Popovic to OSI, March 4, 1990.

3:69 M. Popovic to M. Gonda, September 22, 1983.

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3:70 M. Gonda to M. Popovic, October 3, 1983.

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3:71 B. Hampar to OSI, October 10, 1990.

3:72 M. Gonda to OSI, August 13, 1990.

3:73 M. Gonda to OSI, August 13, 1990.

3:74M. Popovic lab notes, October 6, 1983; M. Popovic to OSI, December 1, 1990.

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3:75M. Popovic, Opening Statement to OSI, December 1, 1990. "Those EM data convinced me that the RT assay performed by Dr. P. Sarin's laboratory was not sufficiently sensitive, and that Barré-Sinoussi's data were correct. From then on, I sent my samples to Dr. Sarngadharan (Litton Bionetics) for RT assays. Considering that we received the first samples from AIDS patients in May of 1982, I realized that we probably had this type or types of retrovirus(es) in the lab for one and a half years; but they escaped detection because of insufficient sensitivity of the RT assay."

3:76 NCI nomination of R. Gallo for the 1984 General Motors Cancer Research Award, October 6, 1983.

3:77 Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303 (1980).

3:78 "See it Now," CBS, April 12, 1955.

3:79 British Patent Application 8324800. "Antigens, means and method for the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy and acquired immune deficiency syndrome." September 15, 1983.

3:80Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

3:81 "French cancer charity boss's appeal bid fails." Agence France-Presse, July 11, 2001.

3:82 "Le secret du SIDA pourrait se trouver en Afrique." Le Monde, October 14, 1983.

3:83 LAV/Lap and LAV/Par. F. Barré-Sinoussi lab notes, October 13, 1983.

3:84 LAV/Hec and LAV/Van. F. Barré-Sinoussi lab notes, October 14, 1983.

3:85 M. Popovic to OSI, May 26, 1990.

3:86 R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, October 17, 1983.

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3:87 B. Read to OSI, June 7, 1990.

3:88 B. Read to OSI, June 7, 1990.

3:89 M. Popovic lab notes, October 20, 1983.

3:90B. Read lab notes, October 21, 1983.

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3:91 L. Montagnier to R. Gallo and M. Popovic, September 21, 1983.

View LTCB receipt for LAV sample from Paris in PDF format

3:92Lee, T., et al. "Human T-cell leukemia virus-associated membrane antigens: Identity of the major antigens recognized after virus infection." PNAS 81(12):3856, June, 1984.

3:93 Summary minutes, NCI/AIDS task force meeting, November 3, 1983.

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3:94 Levy, J. HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1998.

3:95Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

3:96 Barré-Sinoussi, F., et al. "A new human retrovirus associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related symptoms." Excerpta Medica 38, 1983. Meeting on Manipulation of Host Defense Mechanisms, Tokyo, November 13 - 16, 1983.

3:97Affidavit of F. Barré-Sinoussi to SOI, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, December 14, 1993.

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3:98 M. Gonda to M. Popovic, December 14, 1983.

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3:99 M. Popovic lab notes, October 24, 1983; R. Gallo to OSI, May 10, 1990. M. Gonda to M. Popovic, December 14, 1983.

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3:100 R. Gallo to H. zur Hausen, January 13, 1984.

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3:101 R. Gallo to J.-P. Levy, December 14, 1983; R. Gallo to A. Svejagaard, December 19, 1983.

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3:102 M. Guroff to D. Blayney, September 27, 1983.

3:103 R. Gallo to I. Munro, December 31, 1983.

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3:104 G. Shaw lab notes, September 26 - October 29, 1983.

3:105 Shaw, G., et al. "Molecular cloning and analysis of a new variant of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLB1b) from a patient with AIDS" (unpublished manuscript).

3:106 F. Wong-Staal to R. Kulstad, January 18, 1984.

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3:107 G. Shaw lab notes, January 19, 1984.

3:108 P. Fischinger AIDS meeting, October 24, 1983.

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3:109 "Public Health Service Activities in Response to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome." Prepared for Hon. Edward R. Roybal, December 15, 1983.

3:110 L. Montagnier to G. Causse, January 12, 1984.

3:111 R. Gallo to J.-P. Levy, December 14, 1983.

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3:112 M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

4:1 Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

4:2 R. Gallo to B. Chabner, February 1, 1984.

4:3 J. Groopman to R. Gallo, January 17, 1984.

4:4M. Popovic to H. Streicher, R. Gallo and P. Fischinger, August 19, 1985.

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4:5Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

4:6 R. Kulstad to L. Montagnier, February 2, 1984.

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4:7Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

4:8R. Gallo to J. Levy, February 9, 1984.

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4:9Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

4:10M. Popovic to OSI, December 1, 1990.

4:11"New study questions role of HTLV virus as a cause of AIDS." Miami Herald, November 16, 1983.

4:12J. Getchell lab notes, February 16, 1984. The CDC's receipt for the virus is dated February 5, 1984.

4:13W. Dowdle to GAO, May 21, 1992.

4:14Statement of M. Heckler, August 2, 1983.

4:15E. Brandt to M. Heckler, February 16, 1984.

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4:16Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

4:17Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

4:18 CDC Coordinator, AIDS Laboratory Activities, to The Record, February 16, 1984.

4:19D. Francis notes, January 30, 1984. F. Brun-Vézinet to D. Francis, November 3, 1983 and February 4, 1984.

4:20F. Brun-Vézinet lab notes, February 14, 1984.

4:21Montagnier lab notes, February 8, 1984. Montagnier, L., et al . "Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines." Science 225:63, July 6, 1984.

4:22L. Montagnier lab notes, February 27, 1984.

4:23Global AIDS News, The Newsletter of the World Health Organization Global Programme on AIDS, no. 1, 1993.

4:24Brun-Vézinet, F., et al . "Prevalence of antibodies to lymphadenopathy-associated retrovirus in African patients with AIDS." Science 220:868, October 26, 1984. Submitted May 14, 1984. Accepted July 27, 1984.

4:25M. Popovic lab notes, December 28, 1983.

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4:26M. Sarngadharan lab notes, January 6, 1984.

4:27M. Sarngadharan to OSI, January 29, 1991.

4:28M. Popovic lab notes, November 16, 29, 1983.

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4:29M. Popovic lab notes, January 19, 1984.

4:30M. Popovic lab notes, February 25, 1984; M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

4:31R. Gallo to U.S. Medicine, February 23, 1984.

4:32M. Sarngadharan lab notes, February 29, 1984.

4:33LTCB Exhibit 5 to OSI, undated.

4:34Rouzioux, C. "Thèse pour l'obtention du grade de Docteur de l'Université de Paris-Sud." July 12, 1985.

4:35J. Curran to GAO, May 21, 1992.

4:36M. Sarngadharan lab notes, March 6 - 7, 1984. On March 5, 1984, the day before he began the tests, Sarngadharan received 10 milliliters of MOV from Biotech Research Laboratories.

4:37J. Curran notes, March 12, 1984. Interpreting the full range of the CDC’s comparative serological data involves a number of guesses about which controls might have been infected with the AIDS virus. The analysis is complicated by the fact that the serum panels sent to each laboratory were not identical. The most telling comparison between the Pasteur and Gallo ELISAs, therefore, is their head-to-head performance on the same set of blood samples from patients previously diagnosed with AIDS or pre-AIDS. In this competition the French ELISA was the clear winner, scoring 69 percent of these samples positive compared with 57 percent for the Gallo ELISA.

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4:38F. Murphy notes, March 13, 1984.

4:39J. Curran notes, March 14, 1984.

4:40R. Gallo to J. Levy, March 13, 1984.

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4:41R. Gallo to I. Munro, March 5, 1984.

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4:42L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, July 8, 1984, and to OSI, June 18, 1991.

4:43R. Gallo to J. D. Lifson, March 7, 1984; R. Gallo to D. Catovsky, March 27, 1984; R. Gallo to J. Minowada, March 29, 1984.

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4:44J. Hoxie to P. Sarin, November 8, 1983; B. Read lab notes, November 15, 1983.

4:45B. Read to OSI, June 7, 1990.

4:46M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

4:47 M. Popovic to OSI, May 15, 1991, "Regarding the early versions of the manuscript of the May 4, 1984 Science paper by M. Popovic et al ."

4:48 S. Salahuddin to R. Gallo, March 26, 1984.

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4:49Gallo, R., et al . "Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-3) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS." Science 224:500, May 4, 1984.

4:50 Sarngadharan, M. G., et al . "Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-3) in the serum of patients with AIDS." Science 224:506, May 4, 1984. According to an April 3, 1984 memo from Jorge Schupbach to Gallo, the blood samples tested for Sarngadharan's Science article were not those from the CDC, but had been obtained from clinicians at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. Whether the samples had been blinded and coded was not mentioned, either in Sarngadharan's paper or in Schupbach's memo, although such information would have been important for the interpretation of Sarngadharan's results. But a few weeks later, when Sarngadharan tested blinded, coded samples sent by David Ho at the Massachusetts General Hospital, only forty percent of AIDS patients were positive--an alarming false-positive rate of sixty percent [D. Ho to M. Sarngadharan, May 25, 1984].

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4:51J.-C. Chermann to OSI, October 6, 1990.

4:52D. Francis telephone notes, March 26 and 27, 1984.

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4:53E. Brandt to SOI, February 24, 1993; V. DeVita to HHS OIG, September 30, 1992.

4:54Popovic, M., et al . "Detection, isolation, and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS." Science 224:497, May 4, 1984.

4:55M. Popovic to OSI, April 10, 1991.

4:56Gallo, R. "HTL-viruses: Their role in neoplastic and immune suppressive disease." In Symposium on Infective Agents and Their Effects -- New Perspectives. Zurich: Beecham Research Laboratories, April 5, 1984.

4:57M. Glauser to the author, January 6, 1992.

4:58R. Gallo to OSI, July 27, 1990.

4:59M. Alizon lab notes, April 1, 1984. The first successful clone was pLAV13.

4:60Montagnier, L., et al. "Retrovirus isolated from patients presenting with lymphadenopathy and AIDS: structural and antigenic relatedness with equine infectious anaemia virus." Ann. Virol. 135E:119, March 2, 1984.

4:61Rey, M., et al . "Characterization of the RNA dependent DNA polymerase of a new human T lymphotropic retrovirus (lymphadenopathy associated virus). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 121,1:126. May 31, 1984.

4:62 E. Vilmer et al . "Isolation of new lymphotropic retrovirus from two siblings with haemophilia B, one with AIDS." Lancet i: 753 - 57, April 7, 1984.

4:63D. Francis to OSI, December 11, 1991. The printout Francis carried was generated at 11:34 A.M. on Friday, March 23, 1984.

4:64M. Gardner to SOI, February 1, 1993.

4:65M. Gardner to SOI, February 10, 1993.

4:66J.-C. Chermann to OSI, October 6, 1990.

4:67L. Montagnier to the author, August 26, 1991, and to OSI, September 14, 1993.

4:68Montagnier to the author, August 9, 1992, and to OSI, June 19, 1991.

4:69Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

5:1M. Gardner to SOI, June 17, 1993.

5:2 M. Gardner to SOI, February 10, 1993.

5:3M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

5:4B. Read lab notes, December 14, 1983.

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5:5Read, B. "Summary of culture of HTLV-3RF and culture of isolates B.K., WT, L.S. and RC." Submitted to OSI, April 26, 1990. Popovic's November 28, 1984 memo to Gallo puts the date of the R.F. transmission as December 29, 1983.

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5:6LTCB Exhibit 0-10 to OSI, "Summary of Culture of HTLV-3RF and Culture of Isolates B.K., W.T., L.S. and R.C."

5:7R. Gallo to OSI, May 10, 1990.

5:8Visiting Associate, LTCB, DTP, DCT, NCI, to Chief, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, DPT, DCT, NCI. November 28, 1984.

5:9Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

5:10R. Gallo to H. zur Hausen, April 10, 1984.

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5:11R. Gallo to F. Deinhardt, April 10, 1984.

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5:12T. Ferris telephone notes, April 11, 1984.

5:13M. Sarngadharan to OSI, January 29, 1991.

5:14Kulstad, R. M. "Publishing AIDS papers." In AIDS and the Public Debate: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. 1996. IOS Press: Burke, VA.

5:15M. Gonda to M. Popovic, December 15, 1983; January 18, February 13, and March 26, 1984.

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5:16M. Gonda to OSI, August 13, 1990.

5:17M. Gonda to OSI, August 13, 1990.

5:18"Cancer virus tied to AIDS may be disclosed soon." Wall Street Journal, April 16, 1984.

5:19"Research indicates AIDS is connected to a cancer virus." Washington Post, April 17, 1984.

5:20"Mystery of AIDS could be solved." New Scientist, April 19, 1984.

5:21V. DeVita to National Cancer Advisory Board, April 19, 1984.

5:22J. Wyngaarden to SOI, September 9, 1993.

5:23D. Tyrrell to R. Weiss, January 18, 1984; L. Montagnier to R. Weiss, February 14, 1984.

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5:24R. Weiss to D. Tyrrell and L. Montagnier, January 24, 1984.

5:25United States Patent Applications 602,945 and 602,946, filed April 23, 1984.

5:2637 CFR P1.56 [a], cited in Manual of Patent Examining Procedures, 2001, "Duty of Disclosure, Candor and Good Faith."

5:27R. Weiss to L. Montagnier, April 12, 1984; W. Bundren to SOI, October 13, 1992; Verified Statement of Facts, United States Patent and Trademark Office, May 3, 1984.

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5:28 J. Curran telephone notes, April 18, 1984.

5:29J. Mason to SOI, September 10, 1993.

5:30"Evidence grows that new virus is cause of AIDS." Associated Press, April 21, 1982.

5:31R. Gallo to OSI, August 4, 1990.

5:32"Federal official says he believes cause of AIDS has been found." New York Times, April 22, 1984.

5:33F. Murphy to J. Mason, April 23, 1984; E. Brandt to SOI, February 24, 1993.

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5:34E. Brandt to SOI, February 24, 1993.

5:35E. Brandt to SOI, February 24, 1993.

5:36Popovic, M., et al. "Detection, isolation and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-3) from patients with AIDS and pre-AIDS." Science 224:497, May 4, 1984 (received March 30, 1984; accepted April 19, 1984); Gallo, R. C., et al . "Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-3) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS." Science 224:500, May 4, 1984 (received March 30,1984; accepted April 19, 1984); Schupbach, J., et al . "Serological analysis of a subgroup of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-3) Associated with AIDS." Science 224:503, May 4, 1984 (received March 30, 1984; accepted April 19, 1984); Sarngadharan, M.G., et al . "Antibodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-3) in the serum of patients with AIDS." Science 224:506, May 4, 1984 (received March 30,1984; accepted April 19, 1984).

5:37E. Brandt to SOI, February 24, 1993.

5:38R. Gallo to OSI, August 8, 1990.

5:39"AIDS probers cast as rivals for recognition." Washington Post, April 23, 1984.

6:1 "Disputed territory." New York Native, October 6, 1986.

6:2 R. Gallo to M. Heckler, May 8, 1984.

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6:3 "Knowing the face of the enemy." Time, April 30, 1984, pp. 66 - 67.

6:4"Strong new candidate for AIDS agent." Science 1224:475, May 4, 1984.

6:5 "Scientists identify virus they believe causes AIDS." New York Times , April 24, 1984.

6:6 "News and Views: Retroviruses linked with AIDS." Nature 309:12, May 3, 1984.

6:7 R. Weiss to the author, July 27, 1993.

6:8 Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

6:9Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

6:10 L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, July 11, 1984.

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6:11 F. Barré-Sinoussi to R. Gallo, July 12, 1984; L. Montagnier to P. Fischinger, July 30, 1984; P. Fischinger to L. Montagnier, August 9, 1984; R. Gallo to F. Barré-Sinoussi, August 10, 1984.

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6:12Montagnier, L., Virus. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

6:13 R. Gallo to F. Barré-Sinoussi, June 27, 1984.

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6:14 R. Gallo. Unpublished interview with Nature , September 22, 1986.

6:15 "Cancer virus is seen as AIDS cause." Boston Globe, September 16, 1983.

6:16 "French scientists report on virus they think may cause AIDS." Boston Globe, November 20, 1983.

6:17 Robert-Guroff, M., et al . "HTLV-1 specific antibody in AIDS patients and others at risk." Lancet 2(8395):128 - 31. July 21, 1984.

6:18 United States Patent and Trademark Office, April 13, 1984.

6:19 V. DeVita to R. Gallo, June 7, 1984.

6:20 R. Patterson to R. Gallo, April 25, 1984.

6:21 G. Kudravetz to L. Randall, April 30, 1984.

6:22Summary of May 23, 1984 meeting of Committee to Discuss Applications for the Production of a Virus and an Assay System for the Detection of Antibodies to the Virus Associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

6:23 Meeting of HHS ELISA committee, May 30, 1984.

6:24 HHS News, June 20, 1984.

6:25"Five firms with the right stuff." Science, September 14, 1984.

6:26 Declaration of Robert P. Auber. James B. Swire v. United States Department of Health and Human Services and United States Department of Commerce, Civil Action 86-2409, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, December 10, 1986.

6:27 D. Grinstead to L. Harmison, November 5, 1987.

6:28Undated, unsigned HHS attorney's notes discovered by the staff of the Subcommittee on Investigations in the files of the HHS General Counsel's office.

6:29 According to Arthur's interview with the OSI, the flask labeled HTLV-3B arrived in Frederick on May 14, 1984.

6:30 P. Fischinger to J. Wyngaarden, June 27, 1984; P. Fischinger to R. Gallo, August 7, 1984.

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6:31 R. Gallo to M. Essex, D. Bolognesi, W. Parks, and B. Haynes, May 3, 1984.

6:32 M. Gottlieb to R. Gallo, April 16, 1984. In a letter to the author dated July 21, 1993, Gottlieb confirmed that "I did not receive the uninfected (parent) H-9 cell line." Among the others denied the uninfected H-9 cell line were the University of Massachusetts's Carel Mulder and Fred Jensen of San Diego's Cytotech Corporation [letters from A. Sliski to F. Jensen, June 19, 1984, and C. Mulder, July 19, 1984].

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6:33 R. Gallo to M. Gardner, September 17, 1984.

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6:34 R. Krause to V. DeVita, May 25, 1984.

6:35 M. Martin to R. Gallo, May 14, 1984, and R. Gallo to M. Martin, June 22, 1984.

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6:36R. Gallo to SOI, July 22, 1993. Although Gallo laid the responsibility for the collaborative agreements on the NCI and Peter Fischinger, the April 26, 1984 report of the NCI's "Committee on AIDS" shows that the idea had its genesis during a meeting at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia attended by Gallo, Fischinger, Hilary Koprowski and Dani Bolognesi. Gallo's administrative assistant, Ann Sliski, also recalled in an October 13, 1992 letter to Gallo that the collaborative agreement had had its origins in Gallo’s lab.

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6:37 F. Murphy to R. Gallo, May 3, 1984; F. Murphy to W. Dowdle, June 11, 1984.

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6:38 R. Gallo to J. Curran, June 22, 1984.

6:39J. Curran to B. Hampar, December 5, 1984.

6:40 F. Murphy to R. Gallo, May 23, 1984; J. Wyngaarden to J. Mason, June 29, 1984.

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6:41 R. Weiss to L. Montagnier, May 24, 1984.

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6:42 M. Sarngadharan to OSI, June 13, 1990.

6:43 M. Sarngadharan to OSI, June 13, 1990.

6:44 M. Sarngadharan interview with Office of Scientific Integrity, July 13, 1990, 64-66. On the question of whether LAV and HTLV-3B were the same kind of virus, Sarngadharan stated that "In my gut, when I saw the virus coming up from AIDS patients and, you know, conceptually you don't expect the same disease to be caused by many different agents, so I suspected, even if it is a different virus, it has to be something similar to ours."

6:45 M. Sarngadharan to OSI, June 13, 1990.

6:46 M. Sarngadharan lab notes, June 2, 1990. M. Sarngadharan to OSI, June 13, 1990.

6:47 J. Sever to R. Gallo, May 17, 1984. R. Gallo to J. Sever, May 31, 1984.

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6:48 M. Sarngadharan to OSI, June 13, 1990.

6:49D. Francis telephone notes, June 12, 1984.

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6:50D. Francis to R. Gallo, July 5, 1984.

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6:51"The man who found the AIDS virus." Science Digest, July 1984.

6:52 "The politics of AIDS research." Baltimore Sun, June 17, 1984.

6:53"As Race for AIDS cause nears end, debate on who won." Boston Globe, May 27, 1984.

6:54"Gallo inaction on the LAV 'AIDS virus' stings French." Medical Tribune, May 23, 1984.

6:55R. Gallo to J.-C. Chermann, June 15, 1984. In a follow-up letter dated August 24, 1984, Gallo repeated his claim to have first isolated the AIDS virus in November 1982, and fumed: "Look at the latest publication in the ARC magazine. Look at the quotes of Rozenbaum and Montagnier. This is unbelievable! We are simply listed as one of the three "confirmers" of you (we, CDC, Sloan-Kettering). Do you think we accept this? Do you and your colleagues really believe you can get away with saying that the isolation of these viruses and the link (etiologically) to AIDS is just one of several confirmations of you?"

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6:56R. Gallo to J.-C. Chermann, June 15, 1984.

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6:57J.-C. Chermann to R. Gallo, July 11, 1984.

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6:58International Research Conference on RNA Tumor Viruses in Human Cancer, Denver, Colorado, June 10 - 14, 1984.

6:59F. Murphy notes, June 12, 1984.

6:60"AIDS viruses of U.S., France called 'relatives' by Dr. Gallo." Washington Post, June 14, 1984.

6:61R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, August 14, 1985.

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6:62Montagnier, L., et al . "Human immunodeficiency viruses associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a diagnostic method for AIDS and pre-AIDS, and a kit therefore." United States Patent Application No. 538,709, filed December 5, 1983.

6:63Montagnier, L., et al . "Adaptation of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) to replication in EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines." Science 225:63, July 6, 1984. Submitted May 14, 1984.

6:64Brun-Vézinet, F., et al . "Prevalence of antibodies to lymphadenopathy-associated retrovirus in African patients with AIDS." Science 226:453, October 26, 1984. Submitted May 14, 1984.

6:65Klatzmann, D., et al . "Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) for helper-inducer T lymphocytes." Science 225:59, July 6, 1984. Submitted May 1, 1984.

6:66Feorino, P. et al . "Lymphadenopathy associated virus infection of a blood donor-recipient pair with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Science 225:69, July 6, 1984. Submitted April 27, 1984.

6:67Levy, J., et al . "Isolation of lymphocytopathic retroviruses from San Francisco patients with AIDS." Science 225:840, August 24, 1984. Submitted May 31, 1984.

6:68Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

6:69J. Paulucci to R. Gallo, August 22, 1984.

6:70H. Arisawa to V. DeVita, May 20, 1985.

6:71"Recommendation Form for the Candidate to Receive the 1st Japan Prize," February 1, 1985.

6:72Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:1 R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, September 5, 1984.

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7:2 Josephs, S., et al. “Long terminal repeat structure of an American isolate of Type 1 human T-cell leukemia virus." Virology 139:340, 1984; Reitz, M., et al. “Relatedness by nucleic acid hybridization of new isolates of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV) and demonstration of provirus in uncultured leukemia blood cells." Virology 126:688, 1983; R. Gallo to OSI, April 8, 1990.

7:3 R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, July 3, 1984; R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, July 13, 1984.

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7:4 B. Hahn to SOI, September 23, 1992.

7:5 M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

7:6 G. Shaw to SOI, September 23, 1992.

7:7 R. Gallo to OSI, April 25, 1990.

7:8 R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, June 27, 1984.

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7:9 R. Gallo to OSI, April 8, 1990; R. Gallo to P. Fischinger and V. DeVita, October 25, 1984.

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7:10Montagnier, L., Virus. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

7:11L. Montagnier to OSI, June 19, 1991.

7:12 P. Fischinger to The Record, August 24, 1984.

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7:13 E. Brandt to Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, September 17, 1984.

7:14NIH AIDS Executive Committee Meeting, August 9, 1984.

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7:15Groopman, J. E., et al. “HTLV-3 I saliva of people with AIDS-related complex and healthy homosexual men at risk for AIDS.” Science 226:447, October 26, 1984.

7:16Schupbach, J., et al. "Serological Analysis of a Subgroup of Human T-Lymphotropic Retroviruses (HTLV-3) Associated with AIDS." Science 224:503, May 4, 1984.

7:17Kalyanaraman, V., et al. “Antibodies to the Core Protein of Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus (LAV) in Patients with AIDS." Science 225:321, July 20, 1984.

7:18Montagnier, L., et al. “Adaptation of Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus (LAV) to Replication in EBV-transformed B Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines." Science 225:63, July 6, 1984.

7:19Arya, S. K., et al. “Homology of genome of AIDS-associated virus with genomes of human T-cell leukemia viruses." Science 225:927, August 31, 1984. Received May 1, 1984; accepted May 30, 1984.

7:20Crewdson, J. “The Great AIDS Quest.” Chicago Tribune , November 19, 1989.

7:21M. Sarngadharan to OSI, June 13, 1990.

7:22Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 33:27, July 13, 1984.

7:23Cheingsong-Popov, R., et al. “Prevalence of antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III in AIDS and AIDS-Risk patients in Britain." Lancet 8401:478, September 1, 1984.

7:24Melbye, M., et al. “High prevalence of lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) in European haemophiliacs." Lancet 2(8393):40 - 41. July 7, 1984; Melbye, M., et al. “Seroepidemiology of HTLV-3 antibody in Danish homosexual men." Brit. Med. J., p. 573, August 9, 1984.

7:25P. Fischinger to E. Brandt, August 9, 1984.

7:26R. Gordon to The Record, August 24, 1984.

7:27LTCB “HTLV-3B” List of Exhibits for OSI. April 17, 1990.

7:28Wong-Staal, F., et al. "Different isolates of HTLV-3 and lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) are genetic variants of the same virus" (unpublished manuscript).

7:29R. Gallo to M. Gardner, September 17, 1984.

7:30M. Gardner to SOI, February 10, 1993.

7:31M. Gardner to J. Levy, October 30, 1984.

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7:32Gardner's diary shows that the meeting took place on Friday, November 2, 1984.

7:33M. Martin to The Record, November 9, 1984; Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

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7:34M. Gardner to SOI, February 10, 1993.

7:35Bryant, M., et al. “Molecular comparison of retroviruses associated with human and simian AIDS." Hematology Oncology 3:187, 1985. Submitted March 8, 1985.

7:36M. Martin to The Record, November 23, 1984.

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7:37M. Martin to The Record, November 28, 1984.

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7:38The Pasteur Institute applied for a United States patent on the genetic sequence of LAV clone J-19 on November 16, 1984.

7:39Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:40"HTLV-3 Cloning and Expression Discussion," June 14, 1984.

7:41Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:42L. Ratner to R. Gallo, March 14, 1990.

7:43Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:44Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:45Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:46Sanchez-Pescador, R., et al. “Nucleotide Sequence and Expression of an AIDS-Associated Retrovirus (ARV-2)." Science , 227:484, February 1, 1985. Received December 5, 1984. Accepted December 31, 1984.

7:47Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:48Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:49Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

7:50Wain-Hobson, S., et al. “Nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, LAV." Cell 40:9 - 17, January 21, 1985; Ratner, L., et al. “Complete nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, HTLV-3." Nature 313:277, January 24, 1985.

7:51"Genetic structure of AIDS virus now mapped." NCI news release, January 17, 1985.

7:52"Scientists learn AIDS virus’ makeup; discoveries deemed useful in developing tests, vaccine." Washington Post, January 17, 1985.

7:53Montagnier, L., et al. “Lymphadenopathy associated virus and its etiological role in AIDS." Fifteenth Annual Symposium of the Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund, November 11, 1984. Retroviruses in Human Lymphoma/Leukemia. Tokyo: Japan Science Society Press, 1985.

7:54Muesing M. A., et al. "Nucleic acid structure and expression of the human AIDS/lymphadenopathy.” Nature 313:450, February 11, 1985.

7:55P. Newmark to L. Montagnier, January 30, 1985.

7:56L. Montagnier to L. Gross, January 21, 1985.

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7:57L. Gross to L. Montagnier, February 12, 1985.

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7:58Wong-Staal F., et al. “Molecular biology of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses." Cancer Research (Suppl.) 45:4539s - 4544s, September 1985.

7:59D. Francis to L. Montagnier, August 17, 1984; L. Montagnier to D. Francis, August 29, 1984. When Gallo learned what CDC was up to, he complained to Jim Curran. "Since our previous conversation, I was surprised to hear from others that CDC was making a comparison of LAV and HTLV-3. This is in conflict with our previous agreement, that you would not use any of the materials we supplied to you for comparison purposes" [R. Gallo to J. Curran, August 21, 1984].

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7:60 D. Francis to R. Gallo, October 30, 1984; Francis, D., et al..“Comparative serologic testing of AIDS patients and groups at risk for AIDS by three laboratories using both LAV and HTLV-3 proteins” (unpublished manuscript).

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7:61R. Gallo to D. Francis, December 27, 1984.

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7:62S. Wain-Hobson to R. Gallo, August 22, 1991.

8:1NIH travel requests 85-529 (Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, January 6 - 12, 1985); 85-616 (Denver, Colorado, January 28 - 30, 1985) and 85-723 (Hawaii, February 17-25, 1985).

8:2People, January 21, 1985.

8:3R. Gallo to G. Orth, March 3, 1986.

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8:4R. Gallo to OSI, April 8, 1990.

8:5"A viral competition over AIDS." New York Times, April 26, 1984.

8:6Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

8:7R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, January 25, 1985.

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8:8L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, March 4, 1985.

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8:9L. Montagnier to B. Safai, May 20, 1985.

8:10Wong-Staal, F. “Name for AIDS virus.” Nature 314:574, April 18, 1985.

8:11R. Gallo to J.-C. Chermann, May 20, 1985.

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8:12R. Gallo to H. Varmus et al., April 8, 1985.

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8:13Ratner, L., Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F. “HTLV-3, LAV and ARV are variants of same AIDS virus.” Nature 313:636, February 21, 1985.

8:14Rabson, A. B., and Martin, M. A. “Molecular organization of the AIDS retrovirus.” Cell 49:477-480, March 1985.

8:15R. Gallo to “Dear Colleagues,” March 8, 1985; R. Weiss to R. Gallo, March 25, 1985.

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8:16LTCB “Summary of culture of HTLV-3RF and culture of isolates B.K., WT, L.S. and RC.” Submitted to OSI, April 26, 1990; M. Popovic to R. Gallo, November 28, 1984.

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8:17 According to Gallo's July 18, 1990 “Introductory Remarks” to OSI, MN was first transmitted to a continuous cell line on April 4, 1984.

8:18M. Popovic to R. Gallo, November 28, 1984.

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8:19J. Lemp to “Dear Doctor,” April 17, 1989.

8:20"Scientists learn AIDS virus' makeup; discoveries deemed useful in developing tests, vaccine.” Washington Post, January 17, 1985.

8:21"How Gallo got credit for AIDS discovery.” New Scientist, February 7, 1985.

8:22V. Kalyanaraman to R. Schilts [sic], October 27, 1987.

8:23R. Gallo to V. DeVita, September 22, 1983.

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8:24D. Francis notes, August 25, 1983.

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8:25R. Weiss to New Scientist, February 7, 1985.

8:26D. Bolognesi to the New Scientist, February 28, 1985.

8:27A. Karpas to New Scientist, February 28, 1985.

8:28Statement of M. Heckler, September 20, 1984.

8:29"AIDS exposure feared wider; preliminary studies suggest virus may have infected 300,000.” Washington Post, November 5, 1993.

8:30M. Sidote telephone notes, December 11, 1984.

8:31J. Petricciani to The File, March 12, 1985.

8:32M. Heckler statement, January 31, 1985.

8:33M. Heckler statement, February 13, 1985.

8:34V. Schmitt and G. Sandler to American Red Cross Center Directors, January 15, 1985.

8:35E. Doenges to J. Barrett, January 21, 1985.

8:36P. Page to S. Budiansky, January 3, 1985.

8:37HHS news release, March 2, 1985.

8:38M. Sidote telephone notes, March 1, 1985.

8:39Blau, R. "Blood feud." Chicago Tribune , December 15, 1985.

8:40Abbott Laboratories product insert 83-1014/R2, April 1985.

8:41Public Health Service Executive Task Force on AIDS, April 8, 1985.

8:42A. Heaton to G. Sandler, January 29, 1985.

8:43Kirkendall v. Harbor Insurance Company, 698 F. Supp. 769, W.D. Ark. 1988; Carroll v. Blood Center of Southeastern Wisconsin, Wisconsin Circuit Ct., Milwaukee Co., AIDS Litigation Reporter, March 24, 1989; Doe v. Werner, Wisconsin Circuit Ct., Milwaukee Co., AIDS Litigation Reporter, May 27, 1988; C.W. v. Belle Bonfires Blood Center, Colorado District Ct., Denver Co., AIDS Litigation Reporter, April 14, 1989; Jeanne v. Hawkes Hosp. , No. 87-CV-03-1669, Ohio Common Pleas Ct., Franklin Cty., AIDS Litigation Reporter, March 23, 1990.

8:44Statement by M. Heckler, International Conference on AIDS, Atlanta, April 15, 1985.

8:45As of September 30, 1985. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 35:3, 1986.

8:46Cheingsong-Popov, R., et al. “Prevalence of antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus Type III in AIDS and AIDS-risk patients in Britain.” Lancet i:477, September 1, 1984.

8:47M. Abrams to E. Brandt, August 10, 1984; E. Brandt to M. Abrams, August 28, 1984.

8:48"U.S. veto on British AIDS breakthrough.” Daily Telegraph (London), February 23, 1985.

8:49A. Limburg to R. Reagan, February 26, 1985; L. Harmison to A. Limburg, June 27, 1985.

8:50R. Auber to A. Coleman, December 24, 1985.

8:51K. Tovey to J. Curran, June 28, 1985.

8:52G. Strickland to L. Randall, July 29, 1985.

8:53Carlson, J. R., et al. "Evaluation of commercial AIDS screening test kits." Lancet i(8442):1388, June 15, 1985.

8:54R. Gordon to The Record, January 3, 1985.

8:55Kuhnl, P., et al. "HLA DR4 antibodies cause positive HTLV-3 antibody ELISA results." Lancet i(8439):1222 - 1223, May 25, 1985. Weiss, S.H., et al. "HLA-DR Antibodies and HTLV-3 antibody ELISA testing." Lancet July 20, 1985:57.

8:56FDA Workshop on "Experience with HTLV-3 Antibody Testing: Update on Screening, Laboratory and Epidemiologic Conditions." Bethesda, Maryland, July 31, 1985.

8:57FDA Workshop on Experience with HTLV-3 Antibody Testing: Update on Screening, Laboratory and Epidemiologic Conditions." Bethesda, Maryland, July 31, 1985.

8:58Dalgleish, A.G., et al. “The CD4 (T4) antigen is an essential component of the receptor for the AIDS retrovirus." Nature 312:763, December 20/27, 1984; Klatzmann, D., et al. “T-lymphocyte T4 molecule behaves as the receptor for human retrovirus LAV." Nature 312:767, December 20/27, 1984.

8:59United States Patent 4,520,113. "Serological Detection of Antibodies to HTLV-3 in Sera of Patients with AIDS and Pre-AIDS Conditions." May 28, 1985.

8:60A. Reiskind to M. Epstein, November 25, 1992.

8:61T. Ferris to The File, July 3, 1985.

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8:62Investigative Memorandum, HHS OIG, June 10, 1994.

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8:63Investigative Memorandum, HHS OIG, June 10, 1994.

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8:64T. Ferris to The File, July 17, 1985.

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8:65B. Rowland to The File, July 3, 1985.

8:66Ratner, L., Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F. "HTLV-III, LAV, ARV are variants of the same AIDS virus." Nature 313:636, February 21, 1985.

8:67G. Weiser to E. Gutmann, July 18, 1985.

8:68"Rock Hudson victim of AIDS?” Los Angeles Times, July 23, 1985.

8:69R. Gallo to V. DeVita, July 26, 1985.

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8:70V. DeVita to R. Gallo, August 2, 1985.

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8:71Voluntary Separation and Property Settlement Agreement between Stephen Staal and Flossie Wong-Staal. Filed April 23, 1985, Montgomery County, Maryland.

8:72R. Gallo to C. Escoffier-Lambiotte, June 10, 1985.

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8:73R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, August 5, 1985.

9:1M. Heckler to R. Dedonder, June 14, 1985; R. Dedonder to M. Heckler, July 4, 1985.

9:2Statement of R. Dedonder, August 6, 1985.

9:3"Meeting of August 6, 1985 between the Pasteur Institute and the Public Health Service."

9:4"Meeting of August 6, 1985 between the Pasteur Institute and the Public Health Service."

9:5"Meeting of August 6, 1985 between the Pasteur Institute and the Public Health Service."

9:6T. Miller to M. Haddow, August 7, 1985.

9:7R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, August 21, 1985.

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9:8P. Fischinger to R. Gallo, August 7, 1985.

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9:9R. Gallo to P. Fischinger and V. DeVita, August 13, 1985.

9:10R. Gallo to P. Fischinger and V. DeVita, August 13, 1985. When the article by columnist Jack Anderson appeared, it evidently wasn't favorable. For this Gallo blamed the French. R. Gallo to R. Dedonder, October 17, 1985; R. Dedonder to R. Gallo, October 24, 1985.

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9:11R. Gallo to OSI, December 2, 1990.

9:12M. Popovic to OSI, June 29, 1990.

9:13R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, August 19, 1985.

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9:14M. Popovic to H. Streicher, R. Gallo, and P. Fischinger, August 19, 1985.

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9:15B. Read lab notes, December 14, 1983; M. Gonda to M. Popovic, December 14, 1983.

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9:16P. Fischinger to L. Harmison, August 27, 1985.

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9:17R. Lanman notes, August 21, 1985.

9:18P. Fischinger to R. Gallo, August 23, 1985.

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9:19C. Haddow to R. Dedonder, August 14, 1985; R. Dedonder to C. Haddow, August 20, 1985.

9:20D. Francis to J. Curran, September 5, 1985.

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9:21L. Montagnier to P. Newmark, October 28, 1985.

9:22Chiu, I. M., et al. “Nucleotide sequence evidence for relationship of AIDS retrovirus to lentiviruses (EIAV).” Nature 317:366, September 26, 1985.

9:23Norman, C. “AIDS virology: A battle on many fronts.” Science 230:518, November 1, 1985; “Patent dispute divides AIDS researchers,” Science 230:610, November 8, 1985.

9:24Compte rendu de la réunion interministérielle, August 30, 1985.

9:25French government diplomatic memorandum, September 3, 1985.

9:26C. Haddow to R. Dedonder, September 6, 1985.

9:27D. Grinstead to L. Harmison, September 9, 1985.

9:28M. Martin to L. Harmison, September 11, 1985.

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9:29Benn S., et al. “Genomic heterogeneity of AIDS retroviral isolates from north America and Zaire.” Science 230:949, November 22, 1985.

9:30L. Harmison to SOI, July 22, 1993.

9:31P. Fischinger to R. Gallo, September 10, 1985.

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9:32NIH travel authorization 650116 (Rome and Maratea, Italy, and Bonn, Germany, September 19 - October 6, 1985).

9:33R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, September 18, 1985.

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9:34F. Brun-Vézinet to the author, August 20, 1993.

9:35O. Varnier to R. Gallo, April 16, 1987.

9:36A. Karpas to J. Wyngaarden, October 17, 1986.

9:37Declaration of M. D’Angelo, June 1, 1988.

9:38V. Fernandez to National Technical Information Service, August 21, 1985.

9:39W. Stall, June 14, 1985; D. Hill to M. Sidote, July 2, 1985; M. Sidote to E. Esber, August 6, 1985.

9:402 Code of Federal Regulations 606, 610, 640.

9:41Springfield [IL] Regional Blood Services Committee, October 14, 1985.

9:42FDA Blood Products Advisory Committee, November 21, 1985.

9:43S. Kleinman to D. Thompson, November 8, 1985.

9:44S. Kleinman to D. Thompson, November 8, 1985.

9:45W. Staal to A. Gilbert, November 11, 1985.

9:46R. Dodd to H. Meryman, November 19, 1985.

9:47 D. Mallory to American Red Cross Headquarters Staff, January 10, 1986.

9:48O'Shaugnessey, M., et al. "Detection of antibody to HTLV-3 by commercial kits," Canadian Med. Assoc. J. 133:551, September 15, 1985; Maskill, W., et al. "Evaluation of a new assay for antibodies to LAV/HTLV III.” J. Virological Methods 13: 273 - 278, received February 14, 1986; Ragni, M. V., et al. “Detection of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) retrovirus antibody by lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) enzyme immunoassay in low- and high-risk populations.” Transfusion 26:3, 299, May 1986, submitted January 31, 1986.

9:49Genetic Systems FDA license application, May 15, 1985.

9:50R. Dedonder to C. Haddow, September 19, 1985.

9:51J. Mason to C. Haddow, October 2, 1985.

9:52N. Buc to R. Dedonder, November 18, 1985.

9:53R. Gallo to L. Harmison, November 26, 1985.

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9:54D. Grinstead to N. Buc, December 6, 1985.

9:55M. Gonda to M. Popovic, December 15, 1983.

9:56N. Buc to D. Grinstead, December 10, 1985.

9:57Institut Pasteur v. United States of America. 10 C.C. 3041, United States Court of Claims, December 12, 1985.

9:58Statement by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, December 23, 1985.

9:59Wall Street Journal, December 13, 1985.

9:60"The rivalry to defeat AIDS." U.S. News & World Report, January 13, 1986.

9:61"French sue U.S. over AIDS virus discovery," New York Times, December 13, 1985.

10:1"A Big Gun in the AIDS War,” Newsday, October 29, 1985.

10:2"Lab Chief a Facilitator and Fighter.” Washington Post, December 31, 1985.

10:3NIH travel order 636242 (Bombay, Hyderabad, and Delhi, February 10-23, 1986).

10:4Remnick, D. "Robert Gallo goes to war." Washington Post Magazine, August 9, 1987.

10:5D. Mallory to V. Schmidt, January 10, 1986.

10:6M. O'Brien to R. Auber, February 25, and March 10, 1986; from R. Auber to T. Byrnes, March 14, 1986, and to R. Benziger, N. Wald, J. Nance, J. Jersild, and N. Curtiss, June 2, 1986; D. Macdonald to J. Caponio, March 21, 1986; R. Auber to J. Nance, March 27, 1986.

10:7E. Esber to D. Awberry, February 19, 1986.

10:8R. Dedonder to F. Young, February 27, 1986.

10:9F. Young to R. Dedonder, April 9, 1986.

10:10N. Buc to X. van Robais, February 21, 1986.

10:11Blood Center of Southeastern Louisiana to FDA, March 7, 1986.

10:12D. Bohlender to FDA Dockets Management Branch, March 19, 1986.

10:13W. Newcomb to FDA Dockets Management Branch, March 19, 1986.

10:14Meyer, K., and Pauker, S. “Screening for HIV: Can we afford the false positive rate?” N. Engl. J. Med., 317,4:238, July 23, 1987.

10:15Bannow v. Michigan Public Health Department, Michigan Cir. Ct., March 10, 1989.

10:16Doe v. Dyer-Goode, Court of Common Pleas, Philadelphia, PA, March 1988.

10:17Rodney v. City of Los Angeles and USC Medical Center, Superior Court, Los Angeles County, CA, October 1986.

10:18Johnson v. United States, Civ. Action No. 89-2633, U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, April 12, 1990.

10:19"False positive: The AIDS test nightmare." Washington Post, March 7, 1988.

10:20T. Zuck to R. Althardt, March 7, 1986.

10:21S. Risso, FDA Conversation Record, April 14, 1986.

10:22M. Sidote to D. Thompson, March 12, 1986.

10:23M. Sidote telephone notes, March 24, 1986.

10:24V. DeVita, interview with HHS Office of Inspector General, September 30, 1992.

10:25Unsigned handwritten meeting notes, dated March 26, 1986 and discovered by congressional investigators in the files of the HHS Office of General Counsel.

10:26R. Gallo to L. Harmison, March 19, 1986.

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10:27Remnick, D. “Robert Gallo goes to war.” Washington Post Magazine, August 9, 1987.

10:28L. Montagnier to the author, October 2, 1995.

10:29Kanki, P. J., et al. "Isolation of T-lymphotropic retrovirus related to HTLV-3/LAV from wild-caught African green monkeys." Science 230:951, November 22, 1985. Received September 4, 1985. Accepted October 8, 1985.

10:30Barin, F., et al. "Serological evidence for virus related to simian T-lymphotropic retrovirus 3 in residents of west Africa." Lancet (8469-70):1387 - 1389, December 21 - 28, 1985.

10:31Kanki, P. J., et al. "Isolation of T-lymphotropic retrovirus related to HTLV-3/LAV from wild-caught African green monkeys." Science 230:951, November 22, 1985. Received September 4 and accepted October 8, 1985.

10:32Kanki, P. J., et al. "New human T-lymphotropic retrovirus related to simian T-lymphotropic virus Type 3 (STLV-3AGM)." Science 232:238, April 11, 1986, received January 31, 1986, and accepted March 17, 1986; Clavel, F., et al. "Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients with AIDS." Science 233:343, July 18, 1986, received February 22, 1986, and accepted May 22, 1986.

10:33D. Mallory meeting notes, March 26, 1986.

10:34Clavel, F., et al. "LAV type 2: un second rétrovirus associé au SIDA en Afrique de l’Ouest." Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Paris, 302:13, 485 - 488, 1986. The abstract reads: "A second retrovirus, named LAV-2, has been isolated from two West-African patients with AIDS. By its genomic sequences and its proteins, this virus is different from the LAV-1/HTLV-3 isolated from U.S.A., Europe and Central Africa. It differs also from STLV-3, isolated from rhesus macaques with AIDS, but displays an antigenic relationship with the latter virus, at the level of its external envelope protein. The tropism of LAV-2 for T4 lymphocytes and the induction of cytopathic effect in infected cells are similar to those of LAV-1."

10:35"Claiming credit for HIV-2: A ‘sordid chapter’ in the politics of research." Washington Post, October 27, 1987.

10:36"U.S., French isolate new AIDS-linked viruses." Washington Post, March 27, 1986.

10:37"U.S. and French teams claim new AIDS discoveries." Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1986.

10:38R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, November 26, 1985. Gallo evidently monitored the scientific literature closely for trangressors, judging from his June 25, 1985 letter complaining to the CDC's Jim Curran that he was "puzzled by the continual use of LAV by yourself and Steve McDougall. As we have discussed periodically, the generic designation of the virus is HTLV-3/LAV...". Gallo was equally snippy over nomenclature with his friends. "I have noted that all three of you are using HTLV as 'human lymphotropic,'" he wrote Max Essex, Bill Haseltine and Jerry Groopman on July 23, 1984. "We had the agreement in the Cold Spring Harbor HTLV meeting last year, and we should not be breaking the agreement 'willy-nilly.' Let's all go back to the proper term. I have been stating human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) retroviruses (HTLV family) on first definition."

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10:39"U.S., French teams fight over AIDS virus credit; 'compromise' name draws objections." Washington Post, April 19, 1986.

10:40Gilden, R. V., et al. "HTLV-3 legend correction." Science 232:307, April 18, 1986.

10:41“Bad blood.” Los Angeles Times Magazine, May 25, 1986. The interview with Fischinger evidently took place before the correction appeared in Science .

10:42"A new twist in AIDS patent fight." Science 232:308, April 18, 1986.

10:43"AIDS dispute is tempest in a test tube in U.S. lab: In France a cause celebre." Wall Street Journal, April 11, 1986; "Wrong virus picture used in 1984 AIDS article." New York Times, April 12, 1986.

10:44"AIDS dispute is tempest in a test tube in U.S. lab: In France a cause celebre." Wall Street Journal, April 11, 1986.

10:45Defendant's Reply to Plaintiff's Memorandum in Opposition to Defendant's Motion to Dismiss." Institut Pasteur v. United States, 730-85C, United States Court of Claims, April 4, 1986.

10:46"Wrong virus picture used in 1984 AIDS article." New York Times, April 12, 1986.

10:47J. Swire to L. Montagnier, December 30, 1985.

10:48J. Swire to X. van Robais, February 11, 1986.

10:49M. Gonda to OSI, September 21, 1990.

10:50Boston Globe, April 21, 1984.

10:51Gallo, R.C. “Retroviruses in human lymphoma/leukemia.” Princess Takamatsu Symp 1984;15:1-339.

10:52M. Gonda to M. Popovic, February 22, 1984, and B. Kramarsky to LTCB, March 27, 1984.

10:53Crewdson, J. “The Great AIDS Quest.” Chicago Tribune , November 19, 1989.

10:54"French virus in the picture." Nature 320:563, April 17, 1986.

10:55Gallo, R. C., et al. "First Isolation of HTLV-3." Nature 321:119, May 8, 1986; R. Gallo to T. Beardsley, April 17, 1986.

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10:56T. Byrnes to R. Gallo, April 16, 1986.

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10:57E. Gelmann to H. Masur, November 3, 1982; F. Wong-Staal to G. Vande Woude, December 9, 1982; E. Gelmann to R. Gallo, January 20, 1983; M. Reitz to R. Gallo, April 27, 1983. D. Francis to R. Gallo, January 25, 1983; R. Gallo to J. Desmyter, March 11, 1983; M. Guroff to D. Francis, April 7, 1983; M. Reitz to B. Safai, May 5, 1983.

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10:58R. Gallo to F. Deinhardt, P. Hofschneider, H. zur Hausen, et al., September 27-28, 1983; R. Gallo to J.-P. Levy, December 14, 1983. In an August 29, 1985 letter of explanation to Peter Fischinger, Gallo says the Pasteur's shipment of LAV to Bethesda "obviously had not yet come to my attention since Mika got it September 23 and my letter is dated September 27."

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10:59B. Hampar to OSI, October 10, 1990.

10:60Crewdson, J. “The Great AIDS Quest.” Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

11:1Declaration of Box Interference, Serial 602,945 (Patent No. 4,520,113), mailed April 29, 1986. According to the Manual of Patent Examining Procedure [1.601(i)] "An interference may be declared between one or more pending applications and one or more unexpired patents naming different inventors when, in the opinion of an examiner, any application and any unexpired patent contain claims for the same patentable invention." The only claim of Gallo's not previously made by the French was claim number 2.

11:2"Despite wide AIDS cooperation, a feud holds center stage." New York Times, July 1, 1986.

11:3CBS Evening News, June 23, 1986.

11:4A. Karpas to J. Maddox, May 19, 1986.

11:5J. Maddox to A. Karpas, June 18, 1986.

11:6Schupbach, J., et al. "Antigens on HTLV-infected cells recognized by leukemia and AIDS sera are related to HTLV viral glycoprotein." Science 224:607, May 11, 1984; accepted March 12, 1984.

11:7Unsigned HHS attorneys' notes, June 24, 1986.

11:8J. Wyngaarden to SOI, September 27, 1993.

11:9Unsigned, undated HHS attorney’s notes.

11:10"Table VII: Summary of Comparative Study." In Fang, C. T., et al. "An evaluation of five LAV/HTLV-3 antibody test kits." Presented at the International Conference on AIDS, Paris, June 23 - 25, 1986.

11:11E. Doenges to J. Barrett, January 21, 1985.

11:12Carlson, J. R., et al. "Evaluation of commercial AIDS screening test kits." Lancet i(8442):1388, June 15, 1985.

11:13FDA Workshop, 51. Published as O'Shaugnessey, M., et al. "Detection of antibody to HTLV-3 by commercial kits," Can. Med. Assoc. J. 133:551, September 15, 1985.

11:14According to the minutes of the October 8, 1995 meeting of the U.S. Public Health Service's Executive Task Force on AIDS, "Dr. Essex, quoted in the New York Times and the Atlanta Journal, refuted the claim by CDC and FDA that the antibody blood test is 99.8 percent accurate by pointing out that 'this accuracy ignores false negative results, which indicate there is no virus present when actually there is.' Further, Dr. Essex said that he thought the antibody tests might detect 95 percent of HTLV-3 contaminated blood samples; in a blood bank, he felt it unlikely that the test would pick up more than 90 percent. Dr. Meyer said that FDA disagrees with Dr. Essex's statement...". The previous June, Cambridge BioScience announced that it was preparing to seek FDA approval for a "second generation" HIV blood antibody test using recombinant viral proteins that would eliminate false negative results.

11:15Ascher, M.S., et al. "Utility of an immunofluorescence confirmatory antibody test for AIDS virus in the California Public Health Laboratory Network." Second Annual Clinical Virology Symposium, Clearwater, Florida, April 21-21, 1986.

11:16E. Esber to J. Sidote, June 3, 1986.

11:17"Transfusion-associated human T-lymphotropic virus Type 3/lymphadenopathy-associated virus infection from a seronegative donor-Colorado." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 35:24, 389 - 391. June 20, 1986.

11:18Simonds, R. J., et al. “Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 from a seronegative organ and tissue donor. N. Engl. J. Med. 326:726, March 12, 1992; “Additional deaths tied to donor organs, joints, came from AIDS victim.” Richmond News Leader, December 13, 1991.

11:19"Deadly donor." People, July 15, 1991.

11:20Roe v. Richmond Metropolitan Blood Service, Inc. Law No. L.S.-420, City of Richmond Circuit Court, February 5, 1990.

11:21"Rare case: Patient gets AIDS from blood that had tested safe." Fresno Bee, June 20, 1986.

11:22Nishanian, P., et al. "Performance evaluation of three ELISA and Western Blot tests for detection of antibodies to HIV (HTLV-3/LAV) in a high-risk population: Significance of quantitative ELISA results." Presented at the Sixth International Congress of Immunology, Toronto, May 12, 1986. Later published as Nishanian, P., et al. "Significance of quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results in evaluation of three ELISAs and Western Blot tests for detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus in a high-risk population." J. Clinical Microbiology, 295 - 400, February 1987, received June 25, 1986. A new test from Biotech Research Laboratories and DuPont also scored twenty-five positives, but the Biotech/DuPont test was made from HTLV-3B grown in the H-9 cell line, and it had a problem with false positives.

11:23Ascher, M. "Two new anti-HTLV-3 kits compared with other methods." NIH Consensus Conference, Bethesda, MD, July 7, 1986.

11:24"Some AIDS-contaminated blood passes screenings / tests fail to detect tiny number of infected donors.” Washington Post, July 8, 1986.

11:25R. Auber to N. Wald, June 2, 1986.

11:26Undated, unsigned memorandum provided by Abbott Laboratories to SOI.

11:27R. Auber to the Record, August 6, 1986.

11:28M. Ascher to W. Stall, June 20, 1986.

11:29J. Gerlack to S. Hojvat, April 22, 1986; FDA Conversation Records, J. Epstein, S. Risso, and M. Sidote, May 13, 1986

11:30G. Madsen to L. Valdivia et al., July 18, 1986.

11:31R. Althardt to L. Valdivia, July 18, 1986.

11:32S. Kleinman to J. Flynn et al., June 9, 1986. The Red Cross put the Genetic Systems test into service in San Jose, Portland, OR, Binghamton, AL, Los Angeles, Syracuse, Peoria, St. Paul, and Rochester, NY.

11:33P. Tomasulo to J. Landmark, August 6, 1986.

11:34Genetic Systems Corporation v. Abbott Laboratories and the American National Red Cross. United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Civil Action No. 87-1722, Filed June 25, 1987.

11:35T. Bieker to V. Schmitt, July 7, 1986.

11:36Red Cross Blood Center Directors' Council, July 30, 1986.

11:37Lane, T., et al. "Human immunodeficiency virus infection transmitted from an organ donor screened for HIV antibody -- North Carolina." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 36:306 - 308, May 29, 1987.

11:38P. Kokulas to SOI, October 14, 1992.

11:39Defendant's Reply to Plaintiff's Memorandum in Opposition to Defendant's Motion to Dismiss the Complaint Pursuant to RUSCC 12(b)(4). Institut Pasteur v. The United States, 730-85C. United States Court of Claims, April 4, 1986.

11:40Institut Pasteur v. The United States, 730-85C. United States Court of Claims, April 4, 1986.

11:41Declaration of Philip D. Amoruso, June 10, 1986.

11:42Plaintiff's Memorandum of Law in Opposition to Defendant's Motions to Dismiss, for Summary Judgment and for a Protective Order. Institut Pasteur v. The United States, 730-85C. United States Court of Claims, June 27, 1986.

11:43Opinion of Judge James F. Merow, Institut Pasteur v. The United States, 730-85C. United States Court of Claims, July 7, 1986.

11:44On July 29, 1986, Swire filed appeal number 86-1541 with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

11:45"U.S. court dismisses French suit over the discovery of AIDS virus." New York Times, July 10, 1986.

11:46J. Swire to DHHS FOIA Officer, December 12, 1985, and January 27, 1986.

11:47R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, September 18, 1985.

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11:48Gallo, R. C., et al. Can. Res. V45, September 1985; Gallo, R., et al. "HTLV-3 and the etiology of AIDS." Prog. Allergy 37:1 - 45, 1986.

11:49Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F., "A human t-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-III) as the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Annals of Internal Medicine 103(5):679 – 689, November 1985.

11:50James B. Swire v. United States Department of Health and Human Services and United States Department of Commerce. Civil Action 86-2409, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, August 28, 1986.

11:51J. Swire to A. McCann, April 1, 1986.

11:52Declaration of Myron S. Weinberg. James B. Swire v. United States Department of Health and Human Services and United States Department of Commerce. CA 86-2409, United States Court for the District of Columbia, February 9, 1987.

11:53Declaration of Russell M. Roberts. James B. Swire v. United States Department of Health and Human Services and United States Department of Commerce. CA 86-2409, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, December 9, 1986.

11:54Affidavit of Julie B. Finch. James B. Swire v. United States Department of Health and Human Services and United States Department of Commerce. CA 86-2409, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, February 7, 1987.

11:55R. Gallo. Unpublished interview with Nature, September 22, 1986.

11:56E. Gelmann to H. Masur, November 3, 1982; F. Wong-Staal to G. Vande Woude, December 9, 1982; E. Gelmann to R. Gallo, January 20, 1983; D. Francis to R. Gallo, January 25, 1983; R. Gallo to J. Desmyter, March 11, 1983; M. Guroff to D. Francis, April 7, 1983; M. Reitz to R. Gallo, April 27, 1983; M. Reitz to B. Safai, May 5, 1983.

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11:57B. Read to SOI, August 6, 1993.

11:58M. Popovic lab notes, November 22, 1983.

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11:59M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

11:60M. Popovic lab notes, December 28, 1983.

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11:61M. Popovic lab notes, January 2, 1984.

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11:62M. Gonda lab notes, November 15, 1983 (samples 1804F and 1804G).

11:63M. Popovic lab notes, November 15, 1983; LTCB submission to OSI, May 10, 1990.

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11:64M. Popovic lab notes, November 22, 1983.

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11:65R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, August 19, 1985.

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11:66Weinberg, M. “The ‘Popovic 10’: A report of sample sources and disposition.”

11:67E. Richardson lab notes, pp. 99, 117 and January 16, 1984; M. Gonda to M. Popovic, December 14, 1983; M. Gonda to E. Richardson, November 1, 1983.

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12:1R. Gallo to J. Maddox, July 31, 1986.

12:2A. Karpas to J. Maddox, August 8, 1986.

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12:3J. Maddox to A. Karpas, October 10, 1986.

12:4“AIDS researchers share award; 2 recipients embroiled in long dispute over discovery of virus.” Washington Post, September 23, 1986.

12:5A. Sliski to J. Wyngaarden, September 17, 1986.

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12:6"AIDS researchers share award; 2 recipients embroiled in long dispute over discovery of virus." Washington Post, September 23, 1986.

12:7Arya, S. K., et al. “Homology of genome of AIDS-associated virus with genomes of human T-cell leukemia viruses." Science 225:927, August 31, 1984. Received May 1, 1984, accepted May 30, 1984.

12:8G. Shaw and B. Hahn to SOI, September 22, 1992.

12:9"A different kind of AIDS fight." Time, May 12, 1986.

12:10 New York Native, August 4, 1986.

12:11"Bad blood." Los Angeles Times Magazine, May 25, 1986.

12:12Public Law 99-502, October 20, 1986.

13:1M. Sidote telephone notes, July 17, 1986.

13:2M. Sidote telephone notes, July 25, 1986.

13:3S. Hojvat to G. Page, July 30, 1986.

13:4D. Mallory to G. Sandler, September 12, 1986. M. Sidote to E. Esber, October 10, 1986. J. Epstein to G. Murano, October 27, 1986.

13:5Peetoom, F., et al. "Use of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibody to human immunodeficiency virus in low risk populations." Transfusion 26(6):536 - 538. November - December 1986. Red Cross Center Directors' Council meetings, October 7, 1986 and November 1, 1986.

13:6"Testing assures blood supply is safe from AIDS virus -- almost." United Press International, October 12, 1986.

13:7Red Cross Center Directors' Council meeting, November 1, 1986.

13:8M. Sidote to E. Esber, November 11, 1986.

13:9M. Sidote telephone notes, December 13, 1986.

13:10J. AuBushon to Directors, Medical Directors, Scientific Directors and Center Chapter Managers, January 9, 1987.

13:11Kandra Kae Crosby Sicuranza v. Northwest Florida Blood Center, Inc., Circuit Court of Okaloosa County, FL, Civil Action 88-3081-CA-A. Filed April 4, 1989.

13:12"A different kind of AIDS fight." Time, May 12, 1986.

13:13Torchin, N.G. "The pitfall of interference practice: 37 C.F.R. 1.231." 60 J. Pat. Off. Soc'y 579, 587 (1978).

13:14Opposition of Montagnier et al. to Motions II and III of Gallo et al. for Judgment Under 37. C.F.R. 1.633(a) and Contingent Motion I by Gallo et al. Under 37 CFR 1.633(c). Interference No. 101,574. Filed November 10, 1986.

13:15Preliminary Statement of the Party Gallo et al. Interference No. 101,574. Filed October 14, 1986.

13:16Motion of Montagnier et al. for Judgment Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. 1.633(a). Interference No. 101,574. Filed October 20, 1986.

13:17Motion of Montagnier et al. for Judgment Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. 1.633(a). Interference No. 101,574. Filed October 20, 1986.

13:18Opposition of Montagnier et al. to Motions I and IV by Gallo et al. for Judgment under 37 C.F.R. 1.633(b). Interference No. 101,574. Filed November 10, 1986.

13:19Motion of Montagnier et al. for Judgment Pursuant to 37 C.F.R. 1.633(a). Interference No. 101,574. Filed October 20, 1986.

13:20R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, September 18, 1985.

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13:21Declaration of Robert C. Gallo. Interference No. 101,574. Filed November 8, 1986. In signing the document Gallo declared that "all statements made herein of my own knowledge are true and that all statements made on information and belief are believed to be true; and further that these statements were made with the knowledge that willful false statements and the like so made are punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, under Section 1001 of Title 18 of the United States Code and that such willful false statements may jeopardize the validity of the Gallo patent. Further declarant sayeth not."

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13:22"Human 'T' leukemia virus still suspected in AIDS." JAMA 250:8, 1015. August 28, 1983; Chief, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, to Director, National Cancer Institute, August 4, 1983.

13:23M. Popovic to OSI, December 21, 1990.

13:24Ratner, L., Gallo, R.C., and Wong-Staal, F. "HTLV-III, LAV, ARV are variants of the same AIDS virus." Nature 313:636, February 21, 1985.

13:25Brief for Plaintiff-Appellant, Institut Pasteur v. United States. No. 86-1541, United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Filed September 29, 1986.

13:26Brief for Appellee The United States, Institut Pasteur v. The United States. No. 86-1541, United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, November 12, 1986.

13:27Defendant's Reply to Plaintiff's Memorandum in Opposition to Defendant's Motion to Dismiss." Institut Pasteur v. United States, 730-85C, United States Court of Claims, April 4, 1986.

13:28"Institutional response to the HIV blood test patent dispute and related matters." Staff of the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, 1994 (unpublished).

13:29T. Byrnes to R. Charrow, November 3, 1986.

13:30B. Charrow to R. Robertson, June 2, 1986.

13:31R. Gallo to A. Lwoff, October 6, 1986.

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13:32Gallo, R. Scientific American, "The AIDS Virus." January 1987.

13:33"Notes of meeting in Secretary Bowen's office." Unsigned, July 28, 1986.

13:34R. Charrow notes, September 4, 1986.

13:35R. Robertson to O. Bowen, September 29, 1986.

13:36R. Robertson to D. Newman, September 23, 1986. See also: "Concepts for Agreement-Draft II, September 30, 1986."

13:37M. Barzach to O. Bowen, October 9, 1986.

13:38O. Bowen to A. Devaguet, October 28, 1986.

13:39R. Robertson to O. Bowen, September 29, 1986.

13:40W. Scott to R. Charrow, October 1, 1986.

13:41David Baltimore, Paul Berg, Renato Dulbecco, Robert Holley, Salvador Luria, Daniel Nathans, Jonas Salk, Howard Temin, Lewis Thomas and Rosalyn Yallow to President Ronald Reagan, November 6, 1986.

13:42American Embassy, Paris, to Secretary of State, November 25, 1986.

13:43Judge, F. "Anatomy of a settlement." American Lawyer, June 1987.

13:44V. Schmitt to P. Tomasulo, December 23, 1986.

13:45E. Esber to M. Sidote, January 16, 1987.

13:46Red Cross Center Directors' Council, January 19 - 21, 1987.

13:47Final report of the Red Cross task force, March 3, 1987.

13:48Declaration of Terrance J. Bieker. Genetic Systems Corporation v. Abbott Laboratories and the American National Red Cross. CA 87-1722, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, June 25, 1987.

13:49Red Cross Blood Center Directors' Council conference call, May 21, 1987.

13:50Red Cross Blood Center Directors' Council conference call, May 21, 1987.

13:51Otto and Nadia Boutte, et al. v. Blood Systems, Inc. Civil Action No. 88-1812. United States District Court, W.D. Louisiana. Filed July 11, 1988. Boutte, who was transfused on July 9, 1987, demanded $1.6 million in damages. According to his attorney, Jack Showers, the case was settled out of court with "a substantial payment" to Boutte's family.

13:52M. Sidote to E. Esber, November 30, 1987.

14:1D. Grinstead to L. Harmison, June 9, 1987; M. Epstein to the author, September 17, 1996.

14:2D. Francis telephone notes, March 13, 1987.

14:3P. Chandra to P. Sarin, June 12, 1986. See also: School, R. F., et al. "Treatment of HTLV-3/LAV-infected patients with D-penicillamine." Arzneimittel-Forschung/Drug Research 36 (II), 10, 1531 - 1534.

14:4R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, March 26, 1987.

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14:5"The chronology of AIDS research." Nature 326:435, April 2, 1987.

14:6R. Gallo to O. Bowen, March 25, 1987.

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14:7Connor, S. "AIDS: Science stands on trial." New Scientist, February 12, 1987.

14:8S. Connor to J. Maddox, April 18, 1990.

14:9D. Bolognesi to M. Kenward, March 5, 1987.

14:10D. Bolognesi to "Dear X," February 25, 1987.

14:11R. Dedonder to O. Bowen, March 4, 1987.

14:12Joint Statement, Institut Pasteur and Department of Health and Human Services, March 4, 1987.

14:13Letter signed by R. Dedonder, I. Millstein, J. Wyngaarden, and R. Robertson, March 31, 1987.

14:14Baltimore, D., Dulbecco, R., Jacob, F., Luria, S., Temin, H., Watson, J., Lwoff, A., et al. "AIDS agreement." Nature 326:326, March 26, 1987.

14:15Doherty, J. "Points from Gallo Interview, 3-12-87."

14:16"U.S., France settle AIDS study feud; credit for virus' discovery to be shared by two labs." Washington Post, April 1, 1987.

14:17"U.S., France to end legal dispute, share in patent rights for AIDS test." Los Angeles Times, April 1, 1987.

14:18"U.S., France agree to share royalties on AIDS test kits." Wall Street Journal, April 1, 1987.

14:19"The AIDS debate: Call it a draw." Newsweek, April 13, 1987.

14:20Judge, F. "Anatomy of a settlement." American Lawyer, June 1987.

14:21"Accord franco-américain pour la lutte contre le SIDA." Le Monde, April 1, 1987.

14:22NIH travel authorization 699931 (Wiesbaden, London, Southampton and Frankfurt) April 27 - May 3, 1987.

14:23R. Gallo to O. Bowen, April 24, 1987.

14:24Crewdson, J. “The Great AIDS Quest.” Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

14:25M. Reitz to R. Gallo, March 27, 1986; R. Gallo to OSI, April 27, 1990.

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14:26McNearney, T., et al. “Limited sequence heterogeneity among biologically distinct human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from individuals involved in a clustered infectious outbreak.” PNAS 87:1917 - 21, 1990.

14:27G. Myers to J. Nutter, J. LaMontagne, M. Martin, A. Rabson, and T. Smith, April 8, 1987; G. Myers to the author, January 17, 1990.

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14:28"Bush is booed as he defends AIDS proposals." Los Angeles Times, June 2, 1987.

14:29Gallo, R. "AIDS: The Virus." III International Conference on AIDS, Washington, D.C., June 1 - 5, 1987. "AIDS researcher reports new virus, predicts others." Washington Post, June 2, 1987.

14:30"New virus tied to AIDS is found in Africa." New York Times, June 2, 1987.

14:31"AIDS researcher reports new virus, predicts others." Washington Post, June 2, 1987.

14:32Kornfeld, H., et al. “Cloning of HTLV-4 and its relation to simian and human immunodeficiency viruses.” Nature, 326:610, April 9, 1987.

14:33Kanki, P. J., et al. "Isolation of T-lymphotropic retrovirus related to HTLV-3/LAV from wild-caught African green monkeys." Science , 230:951, November 22, 1985. Received September 4, 1985. Accepted October 8, 1985.

14:34Franchini, G., et al. “Genetic analysis of a new subgroup of human and simian T-lymphotropic retroviruses: HTLV-4, LAV-2, SBL-6999, and STLV-3AGM.” AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 3(1):11 - 17, spring 1987.

14:35Hahn, B., et al. “Relation of HTLV-4 to simian and human immunodeficiency-associated viruses.” Nature 330(6144):184 - 186, November 12 - 18, 1987.

14:36Barin, F., et al. "A STLV-3 related human retrovirus, HTLV-4: analysis of cross-reactivity with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)." J. Virol. Methods 17(102):55 - 61, August 1987; Kanki, P. J., et al. "Absence of antibodies to HIV-2/HTLV-4 is six central African nations. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 3(3):317 - 322, fall 1987; Kanki, P. J., et al. Second International Symposium on AIDS and Associated Cancers in Africa. Naples, October 9, 1987.

14:37Kestler, H. W., et al. “Comparison of simian immunodeficiency virus isolates.” Nature 331:619, February 18, 1988.

14:38“Tainted AIDS virus stirs research fears.” Washington Post, February 19, 1988.

14:39Fukasawa, M., et al. Nature 333:457, June 2, 1988.

14:40Huet, T., et al. "Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1." Nature 345:356, 1990.

14:42"Scientists do not live by patriotism alone." The New York Times, December 14, 1987.

14:43V. DeVita to D. Baltimore, December 18, 1987.

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14:44Remnick, D. "Robert Gallo goes to war." Washington Post Magazine, August 9, 1987.

15:1R. Gallo to D. Francis, November 12, 1987.

15:2Affidavit of Abigail A. Havens, November 17, 1987.

15:3D. Francis to J. Mason, November 24, 1987; R. Gainsburg, November 20, 1987; R. Shilts, November 23, 1987.

15:4R. Gallo telephone interview with the author, September 26, 1988.

15:5NIH travel authorization 657617, October 27, 1987.

15:6"Gallo negotiating with Johns Hopkins over new facility." Washington Post, November 24, 1987.

15:7"Top AIDS expert may launch lab." USA Today, November 24, 1987.

15:8V. DeVita to R. Adamson, September 17, 1987.

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15:9D. Baltimore to V. DeVita, December 10, 1987.

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15:10V. DeVita to D. Baltimore, December 18, 1987.

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15:11"Top AIDS researcher is considering quitting U.S. agency to found institute." Wall Street Journal, November 25, 1987.

15:12"Marketing an AIDS expert." Business Week, December 14, 1987.

15:13"Top AIDS expert may quit NIH." Washington Post, November 24, 1987.

15:14"Scientists do not live by patriotism alone." New York Times, December 14, 1987.

15:15L. Sullivan to J. Dingell, June 16, 1992.

15:16"Last days of Maxwell reveal a desperate search for cash." New York Times, December 9, 1991.

15:17"Marketing an AIDS expert." Business Week, December 14, 1987; "Maxwell may back Gallo." Nature, December 18, 1987.

15:18American Medical News, December 4, 1987.

15:19A. Sessoms to The Ambassador, December 3, 1987.

15:20Remarks of Don M. Newman, under secretary, United States Department of Health and Human Services, December 4, 1987.

15:21"Cooler heads (of state) prevail . . . voila, French-American HIV test accord." JAMA, December 25, 1987.

15:22F. Deinhardt to P. Fischinger, December 22, 1987.

15:23P. Fischinger to R. Windom, December 22, 1987.

15:24M. Koch to R. Gallo, March 30, 1987.

15:25R. Gallo to C. Persson and N. Bejerot, March 19, 1987.

15:26R. Windom and R. Robertson to K.-G. Firschow, April 6, 1988.

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15:27H. Stanbury to I. von Kolczynzski, June 22, 1988.

15:28H. Streicher to J. Cass, June 24, 1988.

15:29M. Walters to I. von Kolczynski, July 1, 1988.

15:30Lowry, O. H., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265 - 275, 1951.

15:31Garfield, E. “Of Nobel class.” Theoretical Medicine 13(2):117 - 135, June 1993.

15:32"61 scientists are chosen for prestigious society." New York Times, May 2, 1988.

15:33Interview with the author, November 15, 1988.

15:34Salahuddin, S. Z. et al. "Isolation of a new virus, HBLV, in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders." Science 234:596, October 31, 1986, submitted August 8, 1986, accepted October 3, 1986. Josephs, S. F., et al. "Genomic analysis of the human B-lymphotropic virus (HBLV)." Science 234:601, October 31, 1986, submitted September 18, 1986, accepted September 30, 1986. Washington Post, November 24, 1986.

15:35"NCI Isolates New Human Herpes-Like Virus." October 24, 1986.

15:36"HBLV and lymphoproliferative disease." CDC AIDS Weekly, August 10, 1987.

15:37Ablashi, D. V., et al. "Presence of human B-lymphotropic virus (HBLV) antibody in sera from infected AIDS patients." Kaplan, M. H. et al. "Antibody reactions to human B cell lymphotropic virus (HBLV) in HIV infection." III International Conference on AIDS, Washington, D.C., June 1 - 5, 1987. Washington Post, November 24, 1986.

15:38Downing, R. G., et al. "Isolation of human lymphotropic herpesvirus from Uganda. Lancet ii : 390, 1987; Tedder, R. S., et al. "A novel lymphotropic herpesvirus." Lancet ii : 390. 1987.

15:39Lusso, P., et al. "Diverse tropism of human B-lymphotropic virus (human herpesvirus 6). Lancet, ii : 743 - 744, 1987.

15:40Josephs, S. F., et al. "Genomic analysis of the human B-lymphotropic virus (HBLV)." Science 234:601 – 603, October 31, 1986.

15:41Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

16:1Crewdson, J. “The Great AIDS Quest.” Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

16:2President, Medical University of South Carolina, to P. Fischinger, September 28, 1988.

16:3W. Hobson to M. Popovic, September 8 and November 14, 1988, and M. Popovic to W. Hobson, December 7, 1988.

16:4"NCI director, a chemotherapy authority, leaving for N.Y. job." Washington Post, August 12, 1988.

16:5Yarchoan, R., Broder, S., and Gallo, R. C. US Patent Application 6792646, October 29, 1985.

16:6Report of the AIDS Antiviral Agent Workshop, July 15, 1985. "At the NIH, eight patients have been treated with suramin, administering 6.2 grams intravenously (IV) over six weeks. Two patients had ARC, three early KS and three late KS. All patients completed therapy. No clinical improvement was noted. HTLV-3/LAV was cleared from the blood of four patients. Virus clearing was associated with plasma suramin levels greater than 100 micrograms per milliliter. However, HTLV-3/LAV reappeared after suramin was stopped in all four patients. All patients developed some toxicity during therapy including rash (7/8), fever (5/8), elevated liver transminases (5/8), pyuria (5/8), or burning sensation of extremities (3/8)...At Walter Reed Medical Center three patients with chronic lymphadenopathy of four to five years duration, and T cell defects were treated with suramin; 6.2 grams IV over six weeks. Like the NIH experience, no clinical improvement was detected, but transient suppression of HTLV-3/LAV was noted during therapy. One patient was treated twice and virus cleared both times, only to reappear off suramin. One patient developed fever and rash, one developed hepatitis. All three had proteinuria before and during suramin therapy. In France, 16 patients have received suramin; 6.2 grams IV over six weeks followed by 1 gram every 30 days. No patient improved clinically but five patients cleared viremia during therapy. Side effects included proteniuria (5/6), burning sensation of extremities (3/16), rash (2/16), neutropenia (2/16), and death due to acute renal failure (1/16)."

16:7Mitsuya, H., et al. "Dextran Sulfate suppression of viruses in the HIV family: Inhibition of virion binding to CD4+ cells." Science 240:646, April 29, 1988.

16:8"A ray of hope in the fight against AIDS." Time, September 29, 1986.

16:9R. Gallo to S. Broder, January 10, 1989.

16:10Remnick, D. "Robert Gallo goes to war." Washington Post Magazine, August 9, 1987.

16:11"Brief chronology of events regarding H9 cells and related matters." A. Gazdar, July 25, 1988.

16:12A. Karpas to J. Maddox, May 19, 1986.

16:13M. Roper to A. Rabson, August 2, 1988; M. Roperto J. Wyngaarden, August 3, 1988.

16:14S. O'Brien to Acting Director, NCI, October 11, 1988; M. Macy to A. Rabson, October 14, 1988; A. Rabson to J. Wyngaarden, October 17, 1988.

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16:15Motion II by Gallo et al. for Judgment under 37 C.F.R. 1.663(a). Opposition of Montagnier et al. to Motions I and IV by Gallo et al. for Judgment Under 37 C.F.R. 1.633(b). Interference No. 101,574. Filed November 10, 1986.

16:16Crewdson, J. "The Great AIDS Quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

16:17Mann, D. L., et al. "Origin of the HIV-susceptible human CD4+ cell line H9." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 5:3, 153, 1989.

16:18G. Hendricks to S. Broder, March 6, 1991.

16:19"AIDS researchers compare notes." Washington Post, August 20, 1988.

16:20R. Gallo telephone interview with the author, September 26, 1988.

16:21Gallo, R. C., and Montagnier, L. "AIDS in 1988." Scientific American 259(4):41 – 48. October 1988.

16:22Scientific American 256(1):46 - 56, January 1987.

16:23"Nobel Prizes go up." Science 240(4850):279, April 15, 1988.

16:24G. Myers to R. Gallo, September 20, 1988.

16:25R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, August 19, 1985.

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16:26Fisher, A.G., et al. “Biologically diverse molecular variants within a single HIV-1 isolate.” Nature 1988 Aug 4;334(6181):444-7; Saag, M.S., et al. “Extensive variation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 in vivo.” Nature 1988 Aug 4;334(6181):440-4.

16:27Goodenow, M., et al. "HIV-1 isolates are rapidly evolving quasispecies: Evidence for viral mixtures and preferred nucleotide substitutions." J. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 2(4):344 - 352, 1989.

16:28Karpas, A., et al. "Use of Karpas HIV cell test to detect antibodies to HIV-2." Lancet 2(8551):132 – 133. July 18, 1987.

16:29A. Karpas to J. Wyngaarden, October 17, 1986.

16:30A. Karpas to New Scientist, March 4, 1987.

16:31A. Karpas to K.-G. Firchow, February 3, 1988.

16:32G. Myers to A. Fauci, April 12, 1989.

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16:33G. Myers to A. Fauci, May 7, 1989.

16:34R. Gallo to G. Myers, July 13, 1989.

16:35SOI Staff to J. Dingell, February 15, 1994.

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16:36Myers, G., et al. Human Retroviruses and AIDS 1989. Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1989.

16:37G. Myers to F. Barré-Sinoussi, June 27, 1989.

16:38Myers, G., et al. Human Retroviruses and AIDS 1989. Los Alamos National Laboratory, LA-UR 89-743., I-A-53.

16:39Gallo, R. C. "My life stalking AIDS." Discover, October 1989.

16:40Crewdson, J. "The great AIDS quest." Chicago Tribune, November 19, 1989.

16:41R. Gallo to L. Ratner, January 31, 1990.

16:42R. Gallo to F. Barré-Sinoussi, December 27, 1989.

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16:43R. Gallo to R. Weiss, January 16, 1990; R. Gallo to R. Weiss, January 31, 1990.

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16:44L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, December 29, 1989.

17:1"A Capitol Hill empire is in eclipse, ending a long reign by its emperor." New York Times, November 6, 1994.

17:2"Congress's most feared Democrat." U.S. News & World Report, August 26, 1991.

17:3"Fraud in NIH grant programs." Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, April 12, 1988.

17:4Weaver, D., et al. "Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene." Cell 45: 247 - 259, April 25, 1986.

17:5M. O'Toole to H. Eisen, June 6, 1986.

17:6Hilts, J. "The Science mob." New Republic, May 18, 1992.

17:7"NIH report not the final word on Baltimore case." Nature 337:490, February 9, 1989.

17:8J. Wyngaarden to D. Baltimore, January 31, 1989.

17:9"Scientific fraud and misconduct: The institutional response." Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, May 4, 1989.

17:10J. Dingell to W. Raub, December 5, 1989; J. Dingell to W. Raub, January 23, 1990.

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17:11"The fraud squad." Lancet, 335:155, January 29, 1990.

17:12W. Raub to J. Dingell, November 19, 1989 (not sent).

17:13S. Hadley notes, December 21, 1989.

17:14W. Raub to J. Dingell, December 21, 1989.

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17:15"The AIDS-research dispute." Boston Globe, January 15, 1990.

17:16S. Hadley to J. Rall and R. Adamson, January 11, 1990.

17:17S. Salahuddin meeting notes, March 12, 1990.

17:18W. Raub to J. Dingell, February 9, 1990; J. Mason to F. Press, February 15, 1990.

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17:19"An Act to Incorporate the National Academy of Sciences." March 3, 1863.

17:20J. Wyngaarden to SOI, September 27, 1993.

17:21"NIH goes 'extra mile' on Gallo." Science 247, February 23, 1990.

17:22R. Gallo to S. Broder, March 1, 1990.

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17:23R. Gallo to S. Broder, January 20, 1990.

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17:24R. Gallo to R. Weiss, January 16, 1990.

17:25R. Gallo to J. Jennings, January 20, 1990.

17:26Kramer, L. "Anger is not enough." Out Week, February 18, 1990.

17:27NIH travel order 842867 (Maui, February 1 - 14, 1990).

17:28"Gallo announces cure for KS." New York Native, March 12, 1990.

17:29"Japanese join world push to cure AIDS -- companies see profit in treatment, but not many domestic cases." Wall Street Journal, November 10, 1988.

17:30J. Stevens to H. Streicher, March 13, 1990.

17:31J. Stevens to S. Broder, March 23, 1990.

17:32S. Hadley to W. Raub, March 19, 1990.

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17:33J. Maddox to R. Gallo, March 6, 1990.

17:34"Time not right for Gallo." Nature 345:104, May 10, 1990.

17:35R. Gallo to J. Maddox, May 22, 1990.

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17:36"Inquiry hid facts on AIDS research." Chicago Tribune, March 18, 1990. Among other things, the Tribune reported that a number of key documents had been withheld from the Pasteur's American lawyers by HHS, including several of the relatively candid memos exchanged by Gallo, Popovic and Fischinger during the compliation of the "Fischinger Report." After the Tribune story was picked up by the Paris papers, the Institut Pasteur directed its lawyers to demand the missing documents be handed over. HHS General Counsel Mike Astrue ordered his assistants to "rip apart" the Public Health Service "in order to locate the documents that were previously withheld." The documents were eventually located and provided to the Pasteur attorneys. M. Epstein to M. Astrue, April 4, 1990; R. Riseberg to M. Astrue, April 10, 1990; M. Astrue to R. Riseberg, April 13, 1990.

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17:37S. Hadley notes, February 6, 1990.

17:38Department of State incoming telegram, March 22, 1990.

17:39"La polemique sur la decouverte du sida." Le Monde, March 22, 1990.

17:40P. Schambra to W. Raub, March 23, 1990.

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17:41"Robert Gallo partisan du 'Wait and See.'" Liberation, March 23, 1990.

17:42P. Newman to S. Broder, March 27, 1990.

17:43Gallo to The Record, March 27, 1990.

17:44S. Hadley to W. Raub, April 26, 1990.

17:45R. Gallo to J. Onek, March 26, 1990.

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17:46"Gray eminence." The Washingtonian, January 1992.

17:47Trento, S. The Power House. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

17:48S. Salahuddin meeting notes, March 12, 1990.

17:49Replaced soon after his appointment by Frederick Richards of Yale.

17:50"Gallo's potential jurors." Science 247:1533, March 30, 1990.

17:51W. Raub to National Academy panelists, April 6, 1990.

17:52Science & Government Report, March 15, 1990.

17:53UCLA Symposium on HIV and AIDS: Pathogenesis, Therapy and Vaccine. March 31 - April 6, 1990. Keystone, Colorado.

17:54"Bolstering U.S. claim to AIDS discovery." Washington Post, September 10, 1990.

17:55Stevenson, M., et al. "Cloning and characterization of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 variants diminished in the ability to induce syncytium-independent cytolysis." J. Virol. 64:8, 3792 - 3803, August 1990.

17:56"Allegations of apparent conflicts of interest between a scientist at the National Institutes of Health and a biomedical company." Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House Energy and Commerce Committee, April 30, 1990.

17:57R. Gallo to GAO, October 3, 1989.

17:58“Researcher probed over U.S. contracts / wife's firm allegedly received.” Washington Post, July 20, 1989.

17:59R. Gallo to S. Nakamura, undated

17:60M. Popovic to A. Tombes, June 28, 1990. J. Halligan to D. Kidd, July 9, 1990.

17:61M. Popovic to OSI, June 26, 1990.

17:62Gallo, R. C. "The etiology of AIDS." In DeVita, V. T., et al. AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1985; Gallo, R., et al. "HTLV-3 and the etiology of AIDS." Prog. Allergy, 37:1 - 45, 1986; Gallo, R. C., "The human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV) family: past, present, and future." Cancer Research 45(9 supplement):4524s - 4533s, September 1985; Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F., "A human t-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-III) as the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Annals of Internal Medicine 103(5):679 – 689, November 1985; Gallo, R. C., et al. "First isolation of HTLV-3." Nature 321:119, May 8, 1986.

17:63"AIDS watch." San Francisco Examiner, June 21, 1990.

17:64"The strange story of Dr. Bob Gallo." San Francisco Chronicle, June 16, 1990.

17:65Gallo, R. "Viruses of late twentieth century man: On the mechanisms of their cause of cancer, central nervous system disorders and AIDS." May 9, 1989, University of California, Davis.

17:66Roberts, S. "Lab Rat." Spy, July 1990.

18:1"'No proof' U.S. stole HIV credit." United Press International, June 21, 1990.

18:2Culliton, B. "Inside the Gallo probe." Science 248:1494 - 1498, June 22, 1990.

18:3"When the Institute of Medicine speaks, people listen." Wall Street Journal, March 31, 1987.

18:4Angier, N. "The lab as a battlefield." New York Times, March 24, 1991.

18:5R. Gallo to OSI, May 16, 1990.

18:6R. Gallo to OSI, May 25, 1990.

18:7R. Gallo to OSI, May 25, 1990.

18:8Gallo, R. C. "The etiology of AIDS." In DeVita, V. T., et al. AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1985; Gallo, R., et al. "HTLV-3 and the etiology of AIDS." Prog. Allergy, 37:1 - 45, 1986; Gallo, R. C., "The human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV) family: past, present, and future." Cancer Research 45(9 supplement):4524s - 4533s, September 1985; Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F., "A human t-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-III) as the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Annals of Internal Medicine 103(5):679 – 689, November 1985; Gallo, R.C., et al. "First isolation of HTLV-3." Nature 321:119, May 8, 1986.

18:9Gallo, R., et al. "Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS." Science 224(4648):500, May 4, 1984; Broder, S., and Gallo, R., "A pathogenic retrovirus (HTLV-III) linked to AIDS." New Eng. J. Med. 311(20):1292 – 1297, November 15, 1984; Gallo, R., "The AIDS Virus." Scientific American 256(1):50, January 1987.

18:10R. Gallo to OSI, April 27, 1990.

18:11R. Gallo to OSI, May 25, 1990.

18:12R. Gallo to OSI, May 16, 1990.

18:13Hallum J. V., et al. "Bluetongue virus type 17 can exist in a latent state in MDBK cells." J. Virol. 52(1):288 - 289, October 1984.

18:14"Can OSI withstand a scientific backlash?" Science 253:1084, September 6, 1991.

18:15W. Raub to H. Morgan, July 23, 1990.

18:16S. Hadley meeting notes, June 27, 1990.

18:17"4 North Americans win Nobel Prizes for Science." New York Times, October 14, 1993.

18:18J. Hallum to F. Richards, August 21, 1990.

18:19Vogt, V. "General Description of Experiments--for OSI (Gallo investigation)," undated.

18:20S. Hadley to W. Blattner, July 10, 1990.

18:21S. Hadley telephone notes, July 10, 1990.

18:22Baltimore Sun, July 25, 1990. According to the Criminal Information filed by the United States Attorney for the District of Maryland, "Beginning in July, 1985 to the present, [Pan-Data Services] entered into a blanket purchase agreement with the National Institutes of Health, whereby employees of NIH were authorized to purchase goods and services from PDS as needed provided each order was less than $2500. Since 1985, NIH has ordered thousands of dollars worth of goods and services pursuant to this agreement. From in or about October, 1985 through and including July, 1986...Syed Zaki Salahuddin, being an officer and employee of the National Cancer Institute, unlawfully and knowingly did participate personally and substantially as a government officer and employee, in ordering goods and services through a blanket purchasing agreement from Pan Data Systems, Inc., a company in which to the knowledge of the said Syed Zaki Salahuddin his wife then had a financial interest."

18:23Rabson, A. B., and Martin, M. A. “Molecular organization of the AIDS retrovirus.” Cell 49:477 - 480, March 1985.

18:24D. Volsky to L. Montagnier, June 11, 1984. Receipt signed by D. Volsky, October 8, 1984.

18:25Wain-Hobson, S., and Myers, G., "Too close for comfort." Nature 347(6288):18, September 6, 1990.

18:26M. Martin to OSI, August 8, 1990.

18:27M. Martin to Director, OSI, August 23, 1990.

18:28R. Gallo to The Record, January 30, 1991.

18:29J. Onek to J. Belk, September 12, 1990. The letter also requests copies of non-existant correspondence between Martin and the author.

18:30Assistant Director, Division of Management Survey and Review, to The Record, October 15, 1990.

18:31Statement by Dr. William F. Raub, acting director, National Institutes of Health, October 5, 1990.

18:32S. Hadley telephone notes, October 5, 1990.

18:33"U.S. inquiry on misconduct in discovery of AIDS virus." New York Times, October 6, 1990.

18:34S. Hadley telephone notes, October 6, 1990.

18:35Nature, October 18, 1990.

18:36W. Raub to J. Onek, November 2, 1990.

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18:37B. Hampar to OSI, October 10, 1990.

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18:38"Congress's most feared Democrat setting wrongs right." U.S. News & World Report, September 9, 1991.

18:39Nussbaum, B. Good Intentions. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1990.

18:40M. Popovic to OSI, December 1, 1990.

18:41NIH "charge to the OSI expert scientific panel," undated.

18:42"Effects of a novel compound (AL-721) on HTLV-3 infectivity in vitro." N. Engl. J. Med., 313(20):1289 - 1290. November 14, 1985.

18:43"Compound to fight AIDS may protect healthy cells." Wall Street Journal, August 14, 1985.

18:44Testimony of Dr. Prem S. Sarin, United States of America v. Prem Sarin. Case No. MJG-91-0455. United States District Court for the District of Maryland, July 6, 1992.

18:45"Apparent financial wrongdoing by an official in the Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology at the National Institutes of Health." House Energy and Commerce Committee, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, March 6, 1991.

19:1J. Onek to J. Thornton, October 10, 1990.

19:2M. Reitz to J.-C. Chermann, June 8, 1990.

19:3NIH contract order No. YS870760, August 29, 1990.

19:4J.-C. Chermann to R. Gallo, November 14, 1990.

19:5F. Barré-Sinoussi to J.-C. Chermann, November 15, 1990.

19:6Guo, H., et al. "Nucleotide sequence analysis of the original isolate of HIV-1." Nature 349:745, February 28, 1991.

19:7"New light on AIDS discovery." Washington Post, February 28, 1991.

19:8Joe Palca, who had switched from Nature to Science, reported that, according to Myers, "there is a problem with Gallo's analysis of the molecular differences between BRU and LAV-1/HTLV-3B ["Gallo challenged on HIV isolates." Science, March 15, 1991]. "To compare two viral sequences," Palca explained, "researchers use a computer algorithm to align the sequences and then count the number of mismatches. But often there are gaps in the sequence of one of the viruses. Myers says these gaps are ignored when researchers compare sequences, but Gallo and his associates counted each base pair in the gap as a mismatch. The result, says Myers, is an inflated impression of how different the viruses are. 'Nobody does that,' he says, 'and it's leading to widespread misunderstanding...that these sequences are very different.' In fact, Myers says, the published BRU sequences 'are the closest sequences to 3B and LAV-1 that we're aware of.'"

19:9W. Raub to M. Schwartz and M. Schwartz to W. Raub, August 10, 1990; September 5, 1990; October 1, 1990; October 8, 1990; October 9, 1990; March 14, 1991; March 20, 1991.

19:10Wain-Hobson, S., et al. "LAV Revisited: Origins of the Early HIV-1 Isolates from Institut Pasteur." Science 252:961, May 17, 1991.

19:11"French offer new proof of AIDS virus’ origin." Chicago Tribune, May 5, 1991.

19:12"L'accord franco-americain sur la decouverte du virus du sida pourrait être remis en cause. " Le Monde, May 6, 1991.

19:13"French disclosure may resolve part of HIV discovery mystery; Pasteur virus came from musician who lived in U.S." Washington Post, May 8, 1991.

19:14"French scientists renew HIV discovery claim." Los Angeles Times, May 7, 1991.

19:15S. Wain-Hobson to R. Gallo, June 24, 1991.

19:16M. Reitz to J.-C. Chermann, June 8, 1990.

19:17"A tempest in a test tube." Newsweek, March 18, 1991.

19:18H. Temin to G. Myers, March 20, 1991.

19:19H. Temin to G. Myers, May 18, 1991.

19:20"Dr. Gallo, not magazine, deleted 'apology' on AIDS." Washington Times, June 6, 1991.

19:21"U.S. AIDS Expert Agrees Lab Used French Virus." Wall Street Journal, May 31, 1991.

19:22Associated Press, May 31, 1991.

19:23"Scientists clash over AIDS virus discovery." The Daily Telegraph, London. June 1, 1991.

19:24"Healy ready to take on NIH." Nature 350:178, March 21, 1991.

19:25"Is American science ready for Bernadine Healy?" Boston Globe, July 7, 1991.

19:26"A glorious and magnificent mission." Baltimore Sun, July 21, 1991.

19:27B. Healy to R. Gallo, June 21, 1991.

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19:28"AIDS vaccine fails reseacher." Chicago Tribune, September 5, 1993.

19:29R. Gallo to V. DeVita, March 11, 1988 and April 27, 1988.

19:30D. Zagury, interview with Office for Protection from Research Risks, April 30, 1991.

19:31D. Zagury, interview with Office for Protection from Research Risks, April 30, 1991.

19:32Zagury, D., et al. "Long-term cultures of HTLV-3-infected T cells: A model of cytopathology of T-cell depletion in AIDS." Science 231:850, February 21, 1986; Chakrabarti, S., et al. "Expression of the HTLV-3 envelope gene by a recombinant vaccinia virus." Nature 320:535, April 10, 1986; Fouchard, M., et al. "Evidence for HTLV-3/LAV expression by primary cultures of T8 Cells." Int. J. Cancer 38:657, November 15, 1986; Laure, F., et al. "Genomic diversity of Zairian HIV isolates: Biological characteristics and clinical manifestation of HIV infection." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 3(4):343, 1987; Cheynier, R., et al. "HIV-1 expression by T8 lymphocytes after transfection." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 4(1):43, 1988; Zagury, D., et al. "A group specific anamnestic immune reaction against HIV-1 induced by a candidate vaccine against AIDS." Nature 332:728, April 21, 1988; Desgranges, C., et al. "Monoclonal antibodies to HIV in a non-infected, immunised volunteer." Lancet 1(8591):935 - 936, April 23, 1988; Leonard, R., et al. "Cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus in T4 cells is linked to the last stage of virus infection." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:3570, May 1988; Zagury, J. F., et al. "Genetic variability between isolates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is comparable to the variability among HIV type 1." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:5941, August 1988; Berzofsky, J. A., et al. "Antigenic peptides recognized by T lymphocytes from AIDS viral envelope-immune humans." Nature 334:706, August 25, 1988; Nicol, I., et al. "Use of Old World monkeys for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research." J. Med. Primatol. 18:227, 1989; Nicol, I., et al. "Persistent HIV-2 infection of rhesus macaque, baboon, and mangabeys." Intervirology 30:258, 1989; Bernard, J., et al. "Discrimination between protective and enhancing HIV antibodies." AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 6:2, 1990; Achour, A., et al. "HGP-30, a synthetic analogue of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) p17, is a target for cytotoxic lymphocytes in HIV-infected individuals." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 87:7045, September 1990; Picard, O., et al. "AIDS vaccine therapy: Phase 1 trial." Lancet 336:179, July 21, 1990.

19:33"Researcher Gives Self AIDS Vaccine In First Reported Human Trial." Associated Press, March 18, 1987.

19:34"French doctor testing AIDS vaccine on self." Washington Post, March 19, 1987.

19:35Chakrabarti, S., et al. "Expression of the HTLV-3 envelope gene by a recombinant vaccinia virus." Nature 320:535, April 10, 1986.

19:36"Investigation of noncompliance with DHHS regulations for the protection of human research subjects involving the National Institutes of Health intramural research program." Office for Protection from Research Risks, National Institutes of Health, March 26, 1993; Deputy Director for Intramural Research to Scientific Directors, June 17, 1986; WHO Global Programme on AIDS, Consultation on Criteria for International Testing of Candidate HIV Vaccines, 27 February - 2 March, 1989.

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19:37Zagury telephone interview with the author, April 6, 1991.

19:38Levine, C. Report to the Office for Protection from Research Risks, March 1, 1991.

19:39"3 deaths in AIDS vaccine tests." Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1991.

19:40Picard, O., et al. "AIDS vaccine therapy: Phase 1 trial." Lancet 336:179, July 21, 1990.

19:41 R. Gallo to T. Mays, September 16, 1993; R. Gallo to R. Adamson, October 13, 1993.

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19:42Agence France Presse, April 16, 1991.

19:43"AIDS Vaccine based upon membrane presentation of HIV antigens." NIH Employee Invention Report, September 28, 1989.

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19:44J.-P. Levy to B. Durieux, June 6, 1991.

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19:45Coulaud, J.P., et al. "A placebo-controlled clinical Phase I trial with combined anti-HIV-1 and anti-interferon-A immunization." AIDS 11:7, 1997.

19:46"Healy ready to take on NIH." Nature 350:178, March 21, 1991.

19:47B. Mishkin to OSI, April 2, 1991.

19:48M. Popovic to S. Hadley, May 15, 1991.

19:49OSI Ref. 89-67, Comprehensive Inquiry Report, May 20, 1991.

19:50S. Hadley to OSI consultants, May 10, 1991.

19:51M. Schwartz to W. Raub, March 25, 1991, and S. Hadley, April 16, 1991.

19:52T. White to J. Hallum, February 7, 1992.

19:53M. Sarngadharan to OSI, June 13, 1990.

19:54G. Shaw interview with SOI staff, September 22, 1992. In his March 5, 1984 letter to Lancet editor Ian Munro, Gallo mentioned that he was then "debating" whether to call his new virus HTLV-3 or "HTLV-A (A = AIDS)." A June 13, 1994 letter to Gallo from Robert Ting, the scientific director of Biotech Research Laboratories, where much of the work on HTLV-3 was performed, states that Biotech received its first shipment of a virus labeled MOV from Gallo’s Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology “about a month” before the first shipment of a virus called HTLV-3. “Later, LTBC designated HTLV-3 as HTLV-3B,” Ting wrote, adding that he had then “told the technician to footnote in her log book MOV = HTLV-3A to distinguish it from HTLV-3B.”

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19:55R. Gallo to C. Watkins, November 14, 1991.

20:1S. Hadley notes, June 10, 1991.

20:2LTCB response to OSI question 2f; M. Sarngadharan to OSI, January 29, 1991.

20:3R. Gallo to P. Fischinger, August 19, 1985.

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20:4D. Mann to R. Gallo and M. Popovic, January 14, 1991.

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20:5L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, June 4, 1991.

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20:6R. Gallo to OSI, May 16, 1990.

20:7S. Hadley telephone notes, June 4, 1991.

20:8S. Hadley to B. Healy, June 10, 1991.

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20:9J. Hallum to B. Healy, June 10, 1991.

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20:10B. Healy to S. Hadley, June 11, 1991.

20:11Letter of transmittal to Mikulas Popovic, dated June 25, 1991.

20:12Letter of transmittal to Robert C. Gallo, June 25, 1991.

20:13J. Hallum to B. Boyd, June 27, 1991.

20:14S. Hadley to J. Hallum, July 1, 1991.

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20:15"Source: Probe won't alter U.S.-French agreement on AIDS discovery." Associated Press, July 3, 1991.

20:16Director, NIH, and Director, NCI, to CAPT R. GALLO, July 9, 1991.

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20:17Director, NIH, and Director, NCI, to CAPT R. GALLO, July 9, 1991.

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20:18R. Gallo to Director, NIH, July 16, 1991.

20:19R. Adamson to H. Hyatt, April 21, 1989.

20:20S. Hadley telephone notes, July 27, 1991.

20:21"Handling scientific misconduct: challenges for NIH." PHS Advisory Committee on Scientific Integrity, July 15, 1991.

20:22"New questions in scientific misconduct cases prompt withdrawal of health official." New York Times, August 1, 1991. "Trouble for Healy over misconduct office." Nature 352:361, August 1, 1991.

20:23B. Healy to J. Mason, July 19, 1991.

20:24"Report Faults Cleveland Clinic in Long-Running Scientific-Misconduct Probe." Washington Post, December 29, 1992.

20:25"NIH chief trades barbs with House committee." The Plain Dealer, August 2, 1991.

21:1"Censure is urged for AIDS scientist." New York Times, September 16, 1991; "U.S. probe cites lies, errors in AIDS article." Chicago Tribune, September 15, 1991; "Draft of Gallo report sees the light of day." Science 253:1347 - 1348, September 20, 1991.

21:2"Le professeur Gallo est accusé d'avoir 'censuré' l'article sur la découverte du virus du sida." Le Monde, September 18, 1991.

21:3"France set to reopen AIDS pact?” Science 153:1479, September 27, 1991.

21:4R. Gallo to D. Zagury, September 18, 1991.

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21:5L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, June 4, 1991.

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21:6Gallo, R. Virus Hunting -- AIDS, Cancer & the Human Retrovirus: A Story of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books, 1991.

21:7R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, June 11, 1991; R. Gallo to L. Montagnier, July 9, 1991.

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21:8L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, September 12, 1991.

21:9L. Montagnier to R. Gallo, September 23, 1991.

21:10"Le gouvernement n'exclut plus une renégociation de l'accord Reagan-Chirac de 1987 sur le sida." Le Monde, September 20,1991.

21:11“La polemique sur la decouverte du sida.” Le Monde, March 18, 1990.

21:12R. Gallo to J. Mason, September 20, 1991.

21:13Rout, W. “John Dingell: Dark knight of science.” Technology Review, January 1992, pp. 56 - 62.

21:14Watergate: Chronology of a Crisis. Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1975, p. 63.

21:15J. Dingell to M. Astrue, September 19, 1991.

21:16"Criminal inquiry urged in AIDS lab scandal." Chicago Tribune, November 6, 1991; "Dingell opens second front in Gallo war." Nature 354:95, November 14, 1991; "What Next in the Gallo Case?" Science 254:944, November 15, 1991.

21:17"Beware Dreaded Dingell-Grams." Washingtonian magazine, December 1991.

21:18M. Astrue to J. Dingell, September 24, 1991.

21:19"For some federal judges, long days in paradise." Washington Post, July 1, 1991.

21:20J. Onek telephone interview with the author, April 12, 1991.

21:21J. Onek to L. Little, October 17, 1991.

21:22SOI staff to J. Dingell, November 5, 1991.

21:23J. Dingell to B. Healy, November 25, 1991.

21:24"Probe: Only French virus used in Gallo AIDS test." Chicago Tribune, October 20, 1991; "AIDS virus 1st isolated in France." San Francisco Examiner, October 22, 1991.

21:25"Un entretien avec M. Hubert Curien." Le Monde, October 23, 1991.

21:26J. Onek to M. Astrue, February 28, 1992. Onek's six-page letter states that "It is true that the Roche Diagnostics Research study did not find the source of HIV-LAI among the virus samples in the Popovic pool. Contrary to the Pasteur's lawyers allegations (page 13), however, this does not confirm that HIV-LAI was the source of Dr. Gallo's HTLV-3B. As noted above, Dr. Gallo's laboratory was working with many virus samples at the time the pool was established and any one of them could have been the source for the contamination of the pool." What Onek failed to mention was that none of the other patient samples matched HIV-LAI or HTLV-3B either. Onek's letter also contains the astonishing assertion that "...[T]he Pasteur scientists can hardly claim to be the discoverers of the AIDS virus...", because "If discovery is given its usual meaning--i.e., demonstrating the role and significance of the virus--then Dr. Gallo is clearly the preeminent discoverer of the AIDS virus."

21:27D. Francis to J. Hallum, December 11, 1991.

21:28OSI statistician to J. Hallum, January 23, 1992.

21:29J. Hallum telephone notes, January 28, 1992.

21:30"NIH vindicates researcher Gallo in AIDS virus dispute." Washington Post, April 26, 1992.

21:31"Healy calls for glasnost on Gallo case." Science 256:446, April 24, 1992.

21:32B. Healy to J. Dingell, December 10, 1991.

21:33Senior Attorney, OCG/NIH to The File. January 30, 1992.

21:34Richards, F. "Response to the charge to the consultants to the director of the National Institutes of Health concerning the investigation of Drs. Gallo and Popovic." January 29-30, 1992.

View the report of the ‘Richard Committee’ in PDF format

21:35"Harvard scholar's rejection by Academy caps dispute." Boston Globe, April 30, 1987.

21:36S. Lang to the Council, National Academy of Sciences, April 5, 1992.

21:37Garfield, E. “Of Nobel class.” Theoretical Medicine 13(2):117 - 135, June 1993.

21:38R. Gallo to S. Lang, November 5, 1992.

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21:39P. Raven to S. Lang, May 8, 1992.

21:40"'Anticipatory' data included in grant application." Science & Government Report, August 1, 1991.

21:41 J. Hallum to J. Diggs, February 18, 1992.

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21:42R. Klausner to SOI, September 21, 1993.

21:43E. Korn to B. Healy, February 25, 1992.

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21:44B. Healy to J. Mason, March 27, 1992.

21:45"NIH vindicates researcher Gallo in AIDS virus dispute." Washington Post, April 26, 1992.

21:46R. Klausner to SOI, September 21, 1993.

22:1Prime Time Live, ABC Television, April 2, 1992.

22:2J. Onek to D. Francis, April 13, 1992.

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22:3"Taking the credit." Horizon BBC, May 11, 1992.

22:4"Doctor Accused Anew on AIDS Studies." New York Times, June 24, 1992.

22:5J. Onek to M. Frankel, June 25, 1992.

22:6M. Garretta to M. Pierre, May 9, 1985.

22:7Kramer, J. "Bad Blood." New Yorker, October 11, 1993.

22:8J.-C. Gluckman to R. Gallo, December 14, 1993.

22:9"Are there tragedies without villains?" Nature 371:543, September 8, 1994.

22:10"Une centaine de médecins et de scientifiques demandent la grâce des condamnés dans l'affaire du sang contaminé." Le Monde, January 20, 1994.

22:11Wollman, E. "Scapegoats in the French contaminated-blood trial." Nature 342:685, September 11, 1993.

22:12"French Ex-Officials On Trial.'" Washington Post, February 10, 1999.

22:13"AIDS suit accuses companies of selling bad blood products." New York Times, October 3, 1993. The best account of the American case is "Blood Feud" by Robert K. Massie, which appeared June 16, 1997 in New Yorker.

22:14R. Gallo to J. Macheret, December 4, 1992.

22:15"Cost concerns blamed for AIDS test hold-ups." Nature 367:673, February 24, 1994.

22:16"Betrayed in Blood." Primetime Live (ABC), October 22, 1992.

22:17J. Leibowitch to the author, October 13, 1993.

22:18J. Onek to M. Frankel, June 25, 1992.

22:19R. Netter to J. Roux, February 27, 1985.

22:20DHHS Product License, March 1, 1985.

22:21J. Weber to secretary of state for health, March 18, 1985.

22:22Habibi, B. "Taux de contamination par le VIH des lots de protéines coagulantes produits au CNTS EN 1984 - 1985. " June 26, 1985.

22:23Carlson, J. R., et al. "Evaluation of commercial AIDS screening test kits." Lancet 1(8442):1388, June 15, 1985.

22:24R. Netter to Ministry of Social Affairs, April 25, 1985.

22:25"Compte-rendu de la réunion interministérielle tenue le 9 mai 1985 sous la présidence de M. GROS, Conseiller auprès du premier ministre."

22:26Public Health Service Executive Task Force on AIDS, April 8, 1985.

22:27W. Stall to A. Gilbert, June 14, 1985.

22:28W. Stall to A. Gilbert, July 16, 1985.

22:29“Bad Blood.” New Scientist, March 6, 1999.

22:30"Delays 'fatally undermine' French claims." Nature 367:673, February 24, 1994.

22:31J. Onek to L. Sullivan, November 10, 1992.

22:32J. Onek to M. Astrue, October 21, 1991.

22:33R. Gallo to D. Zagury, November 3, 1992.

22:34R. Gallo to P. Biberfeld, April 9, 1992.

22:35H. Temin to R. Gallo, May 22, 1992.

22:36"Gallo investigation: A 'messy business' raises many issues." The Scientist, April 13, 1992; P. Amoruso to H. Temin, April 29, 1992.

22:37M. Popovic to H. Temin, June 9, 1992.

22:38H. Temin to M. Popovic, June 12, 1992.

22:39M. Astrue to H. Temin, June 23, 1992.

22:40"Nobel laureate cancels meeting on demand of federal lawyer." Associated Press, June 24, 1992.

22:41"U.S.-French showdown on AIDS fizzles." Washington Times, June 24, 1992.

22:42M. Epstein to J. Belk, June 25, 1992.

22:43R. Gallo to Deputy Director, National Cancer Institute, July 2, 1992.

22:44"The master detective, still on the case." Time, August 3, 1992.

22:45"Let the French sue." Nature 358:2, July 2, 1992.

22:46R. Odle to L. Downie, July 21, 1992. Suzanne Hadley also sent the Post a letter to the editor challenging the veracity of the paper's reporting on the Gallo case, and the Post Ombudsman a longer letter outlining the paper's "grossly negligent" coverage of the Gallo case. The first letter wasn't printed and the second went unanswered [S. Hadley to Washington Post, July 14, 1992; S. Hadley to J. Byrd, July 14, 1992].

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22:47"The discoverers are at it again." Washington Post, August 3, 1992.

22:48D. Cesari to A. Manheim, November 21, 1991.

22:49M. Astrue to L. Sullivan, September 11, 1992.

22:50J. Salk to L. Sullivan, September 14, 1992.

22:51"Proposed draft of letter from Robert Gallo to Secretary Sullivan," undated.

22:52"Americans block French move on AIDS test." New York Times, September 20, 1992.

23:1Statement by the Pasteur Institute, September 16, 1992.

23:2"NIH head and Chairman Dingell battling again." Science & Government Report, April 1, 1992.

23:3"NIH chief Healy ready to rally behind Clinton." The Plain Dealer, November 8, 1992.

23:4J. Dingell to B. Healy, November 24, 1992.

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23:5J. Dingell to B. Healy, February 19, 1992.

23:6J. Mahoney to C. Maddox, March 26, 1992.

23:7J. Dingell to B. Healy, March 12, 1992.

23:8R. Bennett to B. Healy, April 20, 1992.

23:9"Critique of the OSI Final Report on Dr. Robert Gallo's HIV Research." Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations (undated).

23:10L. Bivens to J. Mason, June 4, 1992.

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23:11"Hallum resigns, blasts new misconduct office." Science 257:1335, September 4, 1992.

23:12"Science, manips et royalties." Le Nouvel Observateur, October 15-21, 1992.

23:13R. Gallo to P. Stockton, November 5, 1992.

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23:14R. Gallo to G. de Thé, December 29, 1992.

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23:15J. McGinnis to R. Gallo, December 29, 1992.

23:16"AIDS Scientist Gallo, Rival Meet to Discuss Cooperation." Washington Post, January 9, 1993.

23:17"New HHS report faults AIDS researcher." Washington Post, December 31, 1992. "Federal inquiry finds misconduct by a discoverer of the AIDS virus." New York Times, December 31, 1992.

23:18R. Gallo to [name redacted], February 5, 1993.

23:19R. Gallo to M. Brennan, January 26, 1993.

23:20"Who's who in GPA: an interview with Dr. Peter Piot." Global AIDS News, November 1, 1993.

23:21R. Gallo to P. Piot, May 30, 1993.

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23:22M. Libman to R. Gallo, January 13, 1993.

23:23R. Gallo to J. Gershoni, January 27, 1993.

23:24R. Gallo to J. Watson, January 26, 1993.

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23:25J. Watson to R. Gallo, November 27, 1991.

23:26J. Watson to R. Gallo, February 24, 1993.

23:27R. Gallo to K. Jamison, February 11, 1993.

23:28"Democrats divided over keeping Healy." The Plain Dealer, February 21, 1993.

23:29R. Gallo to A. Turano, July 13, 1992, and G. Preti, February 10, 1993.

23:30"Healy announces plans to leave NIH by June 30." NIH Record, March 16, 1993.

24:1J. Onek to Departmental Appeals Board, January 21, 1993; B. Mishkin and E. Korwek to Chairman, Departmental Appeals Board, January 28, 1993.

24:2S. Arya, Z. Bernemann, G. Franchini, and M. Klotman to various scientists, March 15, 1993.

24:3"Hearing process proves a challenge for ORI." Science 260:1714, June 18, 1993.

24:4"Early AZT takes a pounding in French-British 'Concorde' trial." Science 260:157, April 9, 1993.

24:5Bazell, R. "Footnote to Berlin: The Koshland-Salk Follies." Science & Government Report, July 1, 1993.

24:6M. Martin to The Record, June 14, 1993.

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24:7C. Pascal to J. Onek, May 25, 1993.

24:8M. McGrath to B. Boyd, April 8, 1993.

24:9S. Godek to S. Hurst, June 7, 1993.

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24:10B. Read to SOI, July 7, 1993.

24:11LTCB response to OSI question 4g.

24:12R. Gallo to M. Essex, February 5, 1992.

24:13B. Read, to ORI attorneys, May 11, 1993. The notes taken by Nancy O'Connor contain the statement that "BRC [Betsy Read-Connole] did not see pool."

24:14NIH travel authorization WPB30055-01, June 2 - 15, 1993.

25:1"Healy set to start run for Senate." The Plain Dealer, September 4, 1993.

25:2"Clinton to name former Washington state official to AIDS post." New York Times, June 25, 1993.

25:3H. Varmus, interview with the author, June 17, 1988.

25:4"Striking up the Band; at movie premiere, a loud message." Washington Post, September 9, 1993.

25:5"Bucking the system." Los Angeles Times, March 1, 1993. "I fought this battle as long as I possibly could," Francis said, "and everybody has limits. Even me."

25:6R. Gallo to J. Curran, September 27, 1993.

25:7R. Gallo to E. Frei, January 3, 1994.

25:8R. Gallo to J. Curran, November 3, 1993.

25:9Sheng-Yung, P., et al. "The origin of HIV-1 isolate HTLV-3B." Nature 363(6428):466 - 469, June 3, 1993.

25:10R. Gallo to S.-Y. Chang and T. White, June 1, 1993.

25:11R. Gallo to SOI, July 22, 1993; R. Gallo to J. Maddox, September 2, 1983.

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25:12C. Ford to J. Onek and M. Christ, March 9, 1993.

25:13Research Integrity Adjudications Panel, July 6, 1993.

25:14J. Ballard et al. to J. Onek et al., September 27, 1993.

25:15J. Ballard, N. Settle and C. Ford to J. Onek and C. Pascal, September 27, 1993.

25:16Offer of Proof of the Office of Research Integrity, August 30, 1993.

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25:17Research Integrity Adjudications Panel, August 6, 1993. The panel's decision reads in part: "Since there were no standards explicitly defined in applicable regulations or law during the time in question, ORI was obligated to show by evidence what standards were applicable to similarly-situated researchers. We find that ORI proved the existence of standards applicable during the period in question that would be violated, at a minimum, by intentional material falsification of research methods and results in a grant application. We find that ORI did not prove that negligent inclusion of a false statement in a grant application in the circumstances involved in this case would so seriously deviate from accepted practice at the time as to constitute scientific misconduct. Thus, ORI could establish scientific misconduct in this case only if it proved by a preponderance of the evidence that Dr. Sharma intentionally falsified material statements in his grant applications."

25:18"Case against Gallo faces tough appeals process." Science & Government Report, October 15, 1993.

25:19Affidavit of F. Barré-Sinoussi to SOI, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, December 14, 1993.

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25:20ORI attorney's interview notes, September 17, 1993.

25:21Mishkin, B. “Response to investigative memorandum no. W-90-00066-4: Drs. Gallo and Popovic.” July 28, 1994.

25:22"A Time of AIDS." The Discovery Channel, November 14 - 17, 1993.

25:23Read, B. “Summary of culture of HTLV-3RF and culture of isolates B.K., WT, L.S. and RC." Submitted to OSI, April 26, 1990.

25:24R. Gallo to OSI, July 18, 1990.

25:25M. Popovic to OSI, May 15, 1991.

25:26“Response to investigative memorandum no. W-90-00066-4: Drs. Gallo and Popovic.”

25:27Read, B. “Summary of culture of HTLV-3RF and culture of isolates B.K., WT, L.S. and RC." April 26, 1990; LTCB “S.N. History,” April 26, 1990.

25:28ORI attorney's notes (M. Christ and N. O'Connor), September 17, 1993.

25:29Affidavit of F. Barré-Sinoussi to SOI, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, December 14, 1993.

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25:30"Panel clears AIDS researcher." Chicago Tribune, November 5, 1993.

View the Research Integrity Adjudications Panel report in PDF format: part one, two, three

25:31"New HHS report faults AIDS researcher." Washington Post, December 31, 1992. "Federal inquiry finds misconduct by a discoverer of the AIDS virus." New York Times, December 31, 1992.

25:32LTCB response to OSI question 2a.

25:33HHS news release, November 12, 1993.

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25:34"ORI drops Gallo case in legal dispute." Science 262:1202, November 19, 1993.

26:1Science and Government Report, May 15, 1994.

26:2M. Popovic to OSI, June 29, 1990.

26:3H. Grasman to C. Maddox, August 24, 1993.

26:4B. Read to SOI, July 6, 1993.

26:5B. Read to SOI, July 6, 1993.

26:6B. Read to SOI, July 7, 1993.

26:7"U.S. declines to prosecute AIDS researcher Gallo." Chicago Tribune, January 21, 1994.

26:8G. Jordan and D. Kelberman to D. Shalala, January 19, 1994.

26:9M. Schwartz to H. Varmus, February 14, 1994.

26:10"Proposal to resolve the dispute among Institut Pasteur, Dr. Robert Gallo, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services." February 14, 1994.

26:11M. Schwartz to H. Varmus, March 24, 1994.

26:12M. Schwartz to H. Varmus, April 27, 1994.

26:13H. Varmus to M. Schwartz, June 8, 1994.

26:14S. Broder to SOI staff, April 9, 1994.

26:15Gallo, R., and Broder S. N. Engl. J. Med., 311(20):1292 – 1297, November 15, 1984; Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F., Blood 65:2, 253; Gallo, R. C., et al., “HTLV-II, LAV, ARV are variants of same AIDS virus.” Nature 313(6004):636 – 637, February 21, 1985; Gallo, R. C., “The human T-cell leukemia/lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV) family: past, present, and future.” Cancer Research 45(9 supplement):4524s - 4533s, September 1985; Salahuddin, S.Z., and Gallo, R. C., “Isolation of infectious human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) and from healthy carriers: A study of risk groups and tissue sources.” PNAS 82:5530, September 1985; Gallo, R. C., “First isolation of HTLV-III.” Nature 321(6066):119, May 8, 1986; Gallo, R. C., “HTLV-III: Untangling the retroviral origin of the AIDS pandemic.” Advances in Oncology 2(3):3 – 10, July 1986; Gallo, R. C., and Wong-Staal, F., “A human t-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-III) as the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.” Annals of Internal Medicine 103(5):679 – 689, November 1985.. November 1985; Wong-Staal, F., and Gallo, R. C., “Human T-lymphotropia retroviruses.” Nature 317(6036):395 – 403, October 3, 1985; Gallo, R. Kaplan Memorial Lecture, Fifteenth Annual Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund, Tokyo, 1984 (subsequently published in Retroviruses in Human Lymphoma Leukemia. Tokyo: Japan Science Society Press, 1985., p. 13 - 38; Gallo, R., et al. “The etiology of AIDS.” In AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. DeVita, V.T., et al. (eds). Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott, 1985.

26:16Salahuddin, S. Z., and Gallo, R. C. "Isolation of infectious human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) and from healthy carriers: A study of risk groups and tissue sources." PNAS 82:5530, September 1985.

26:17"Questions concerning use of rabbit sera." Gallo submission to OSI, undated. See also: Veronese, F., et al., "Monoclonal antibodies specific for P24, the major core protein of human T-cell leukemia virus type III." PNAS 85: 82, August 1985.

26:18S. Broder to R. Adamson, May 17, 1994.

26:19Chief, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, BCP, DCE, NCI to Director, Division of Cancer Etiology, NCI, June 3, 1994.

26:20"MUSC courting Gallo, AIDS virus discoverer," Charleston Post & Courier, June 14, 1994.

26:21HHS OIG, "Investigative Memorandum. Gallo, Robert C. Dr. Chief, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology. Popovic, Mikulas Dr. Former Researcher, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology. National Cancer Institute (NIH). Bethesda, Maryland. Alleged Scientific Fraud. Fraud Against the Government. False Statements. File Number: W-90-00066-4." June 10, 1994.

View the Investigative Memorandum in PDF format: part one & two

26:22"AIDS test patent challenged." Chicago Tribune, June 19, 1994; "HHS unable to back Gallo, paper reports." Washington Post, June 19, 1994.

26:23"AIDS science row 'at turning point,' Pasteur director says." Agence France-Presse, June 20, 1994; "Gallo n'aurait pas mis au point le test de dépistage du SIDA." Quot. Medicin, June 21, 1994; "Les négociations franco-américaines sur le test de dépistage du sida pourraient tourner à l'avantage de l'Institut Pasteur." Le Monde, June 21, 1994; "Gallo-Montagnier le 'tournant.'" Le Figaro, June 21, 1994; "Aucune preuve ne permit de penser que le professeur Gallo est l'inventeur du test de dépistage du virus du sida." Le Monde, June 22, 1994.

26:24R. Weiss to the author, November 2, 1993.

26:25H. Varmus to M. Schwartz, June 23, 1994.

26:26"Report prompts US to enter talks on new split of AIDS patent royalties." Nature 369(6483):693, June 30, 1994.

26:27"U.S.-French patent dispute heads for a showdown." Science 265:23, July 1, 1994.

26:28"Healy to host GOP TV show on health care." Cleveland Plain Dealer, July 7, 1994.

26:29"Statement of division of HIV test kit royalties." National Institutes of Health, July 11, 1994.

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Epilogue:1"U.S., France settle AIDS virus dispute." Chicago Tribune, July 12, 1994; "U.S. concession settles HIV dispute." Washington Post, July 12, 1994; "U.S. admits French role in HIV test kit." Los Angeles Times, July 2, 1994; "US climbs down in feud with French over AIDS research." Financial Times, July 12, 1994; "SIDA: Les Américains s'inclinent devant Montagnier." Le Figaro, July 12, 1994; "Les États-Unis reconnaissent que le virus du sida a été découvert à l'Institut Pasteur de Paris," Le Monde, July 13, 1994.

Epilogue:2"A Capitol Hill empire is in eclipse, ending a long reign by its emperor." New York Times, November 6, 1994.

Epilogue:3R. Gallo to F. Coppola, February 6, 1995.

Epilogue:4"Institutional response to the HIV blood test patent dispute and related matters." Staff Report of the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, United States House of Representatives (unpublished).

Epilogue:5J. Edsall to J. Dingell, February 4, 1994.

Epilogue:6J. Dingell to H. Varmus, February 3, 1995, and to S. Hadley, March 9, 1995.

Epilogue:7R. Gallo to Z. Bernemann, November 29, 1994.

Epilogue:8"Pursuit of truth was not an NIH objective in Gallo case, Dingell staff report says." Cancer Letter, January 6, 1995.

Epilogue:9“A case of rising blood pressures.” Washington Post, June 27, 1995.

Epilogue:10American Red Cross News, July 8, 1999.

Epilogue:11“A drug maker accepts a fine over test kits.” New York Times, November 5, 1999.

Epilogue:12Mikulas Popovic, M.D., Ph.D. v. United States of America and Suzanne Hadley, Ph.D. CA PJM-96-3106, United States District Court for the District of Maryland, October 2, 1996.

Epilogue:13Opinion of United States District Judge Peter Messitte, February 27, 1998.

Epilogue:14Report of the Commission on Research Integrity. Integrity and Misconduct in Research (1995).

Epilogue:15“Decision in Imanishi-Kari appeal spurs call for changes in system.” The Scientist, August 1996.

Epilogue:16Office of Research Integrity Annual Report, 1999. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science. Washington, D.C., August 2000.

Epilogue:17"The VaxGen Experiment." Sunday Times Magazine (London) October 3, 1999.

Epilogue:18Relman, A.S."The NIH "E-BIOMED" proposal; a potential threat to the evaluation and orderly dissemination of new clinical studies." New England Journal of Medicine 1999; 340:1793-94.

Epilogue:19Varmus, H. "E-Biomed: a proposal for electronic publications in the biomedical sciences." www.nih.gov/welcome/director/ebiomed/ebi.htm.

Epilogue:20"New NIH rules promote greater sharing of tools and materials." Science 286:2430, December 24, 1999.

Epilogue:21"Reward for man who improved on Nature." The Times (London), December 31, 1994.

Epilogue:22Maddox, J. What Remains To Be Discovered. New York: The Free Press, 1998.

Epilogue:23Balter, M. "Has French AIDS research stumbled?" Science 279:5349, January 16, 1998.

Epilogue:24"Montagnier to head New York center." Science 276:672, May 2, 1997.

Epilogue:25"Top French AIDS specialist will move to Queens College." New York Times, April 25, 1997.

Epilogue:26"Queens College AIDS lab to be taken over by CUNY." New York Times, December 3, 1999.

Epilogue:27Karpas, A., et al. “A human myeloma cell line suitable for the generation of human monoclonal antibodies.” PNAS 98,4:1799 - 1804, February 13, 2001.

Epilogue:28Montagnier, L. Virus. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.

Epilogue:29Weiss, R. "Of viruses and men." Nature 405:277, May 18, 2000.

Epilogue:30"Fraud in breast cancer study: doctor lied on data for a decade." Chicago Tribune, March 13, 1994.

Epilogue:31“Gallo institute to target AIDS.” USA Today May 25, 1995

Epilogue:32"AIDS researcher pursued." Baltimore Sun, March 23, 1995.

Epilogue:33"Critics: Giveaways ignore small firms." Baltimore Business Journal, June 7, 1996.

Epilogue:34"Arrival of AIDS researcher Robert Gallo turns spotlight on Maryland's HIV policy." Warfield's Business Record, June 2, 1995.

Epilogue:35Chief, Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, to Director, National Cancer Institute. August 16, 1995.

Epilogue:36R. Gallo to A. Pinching, January 26, 1993. Also: TechnoPolitics, June 16, 1995.

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Epilogue:37Scientist, 10,15:12 - 13 , July 22, 1996.

Epilogue:38R. Gallo to J. Maddox, May 20, 1992. Lusso, P., and Gallo, R. C. "Human herpesvirus 6 in AIDS." Lancet 343:555, March 5, 1994.

Epilogue:39Saxinger, C., et al. "Antibody reactivity with HBLV (HHV-6) in U.S. populations." J. Virol. Methods 21:199 - 208, May 25, 1988.

Epilogue:40Lancet, 1990 Feb 10;335(8685):325-6

Epilogue:41Hall, C.B. "Herpes and the rash of roses: a new virus, HHV-6, as a cause of an old childhood disease, roseola." Pediatr Ann. 19 (9):517-21. September, 1990.

Epilogue:42Nakamura, S., et al. "Inhibition of development of Kaposi's sarcoma-related lesions by a bacterial cell wall complex." Science 255:1437, March 13, 1992.

Epilogue:43"Perspectives for the future control of HIV." NCI news release, June 7, 1993.

Epilogue:44"New techniques hold promise in fighting AIDS." New York Times, November 8, 1994.

Epilogue:45Gonzalez, O., et al. “Retrospective case control study of the impact of hydroxyurea on the toxicity, virologic and immunologic responses to HAART therapy in HIV-infected patients.” Program and abstracts of the 38th Annual meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, September 7 - 10, 2000.

Epilogue:46"AIDS researcher pursued." Baltimore Sun, March 23, 1995.

Epilogue:47Cocchi, F., et al. "Identification of the C-C chemokines RANTES, MIP-1a and MIP-1B as the major human immunodeficiency virus-inhibitory factors produced by CD8 T-cells." Science 270:1811 - 1815, December 15, 1995.

Epilogue:48"Major HIV-suppressive factors identified." Institute for Human Virology, December 6, 1995.

Epilogue:49"Bob Gallo's new weapon against AIDS." Business Week, January 15, 1996.

Epilogue:50"The body's own AIDS Rx?" Newsweek, December 18, 1995.

Epilogue:51Varmus, H. "AIDS: The process of discovery." Science 275:140-44. January 10, 1997.

Epilogue:52"Md. lawmakers ponder virology institute." Washington Post, December 15, 1995.

Epilogue:53"Gallo's institute at the last hurdle." Science 271:1359, March 8, 1996.

Epilogue:54B. Hoffman and H. Rawlings to T. Miller, December 18, 1995.

Epilogue:55Ho, D., et al. "Rapid turnover of plasmas virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection." Nature 373(6510):123 – 126, January 12, 1995; Wei, X., et al. "Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection." Nature 373(6510):117 – 122, January 12, 1995.

Epilogue:56"Turning the tide." Time, December 30, 1996.

Epilogue:57"Gallo's institute at the last hurdle." Science 271:1359, March 8, 1996.

Epilogue:58"Maryland: Lawmakers reluctantly fund Gallo's clinic." National Journal, April 22, 1998.

Epilogue:59"AIDS research rivals to share science prize." Boston Globe, April 18, 1998.

Epilogue:60May 15, 1998. Said Jan Lindsten, Dean of the Karolinska Institute's Medical Faculty: "[Gallo's] scientific career is characterized by a combination of the energy, vitality, and open-mindedness of a child and with a boldness-even obsession-in seeing a possibility to attack the impossible. The impossible in this case being the difficult and complex problem of if and how a retrovirus can cause diseases in humans."

Epilogue:61Gallo, R. C. "Post-HAART therapy research." J. Human Virol. 1(2):67 – 68, January – February 1998; Hermans, P., et al. "AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma patients with visceral manifestations. Response to human chorionic gonadotropin preparations." J. Human Virol. 1(2):82 - 89; Gallo, R. C. "HIV-1, HHV-8, and Kaposi's sarcoma." J. Human Virol. 1(3):185 – 186, March – April 1998; Zagury, J. F., et al. "Antibodies to the HIV-1 tat protein correlated with nonprogression to AIDS: A rationale for the use of tat toxoid as an HIV-1 vaccine." J Human Virol. 1(4):282 – 292, May – June 1998; Gringeri, A., et al. "Safety and immunogenicity of HIV-1 tat toxoid in immunocompromised HIV-1 infected patients." J. Human Virol. 1(4):293 – 298, May – June 1998; Gallo, R. C. "A personal perspective on HIV-AIDS research." J. Human Virol. 2(1):8 – 18, January – February 1999.

Epilogue:62Pal, R., et al. "Inhibition of HIV infection by the B-chemokine MDC." Science 278:796, October 24, 1997.

Epilogue:63Lunardi-Iskandar, Y., et al. "Tumorigenesis and metastasis of neoplastic Kaposi's sarcoma cell line in immunodeficient mice blocked by a human pregnancy hormone.” Nature 375(6526):64 - 68, May 4, 1995.

Epilogue:64"New strains of AIDS virus are identified." Los Angeles Times, August 9, 1994.

Epilogue:65"AIDS' Achilles' heel?" Newsweek, November 4, 1996.

Epilogue:66Lee, B., et al., "B-chemokine MDC and HIV-1 infection." Science 281:487, July 24, 1998; Nanki, T., et al., "Lack of correlation between chemokine receptor and Th1/Th2 cytokine expression by individual memory T cells." International Immunology 12(12):1659 - 1667, December 2000.

Epilogue:67Sipsas, N. V., et al. "AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma: failure of treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin." J. Chemotherapy 11(1):78 – 79, February 1999; Tirelli, U., et al. "Human chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma." AIDS 11(3):387 – 388, March 1997; Witzke O., et al. "Beta-human choriogonadotropin therapy and HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma." Eur. J. Med. Res. 2(4):155 – 158, April 21, 1997.

Epilogue:68Samaniego, F., et al. "Induction of programmed cell death in Kaposi's sarcoma cells by preparations of human chorionic gonadotropin." J. National Cancer Institute 91(2):135 - 143, January 20, 1999.

Epilogue:69“Gallo puts Md. in thick of action.” Montgomery Gazette, July 23, 1999.

Epilogue:70CBS Evening News, January 21, 2001. CBS reporter Wyatt Andrews introduced Gallo as "the same man who discovered HIV."

Epilogue:71Fong, T.A. et al. "SU5416 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flk-1/KDR) that inhibits tyrosine kinase catalysis, tumor vascularization, and growth of multiple tumor types." Cancer Res. 59(1):99-106, January 1, 1999.

Epilogue:72“Cocktail Hour.” Washington Post, May 18, 1997.

Epilogue:73Drucker, B.J., et al. "Effects of a selective inhibitor of the Abl tyrosine kinase on the growth of Bcr-Abl positive cells." Nature Medicine 2(5):561-6. May 2, 1996.

Epilogue:74“The AIDS questions that linger.” New York Times, January 30, 2001.

Epilogue:75http://www.ihv.org. According to an account of the first two decades of the AIDS epidemic posted on the Gallo institute's web site, "In their quest to find cancer-causing viruses, a group of National Cancer Institute (NCI) scientists made history 20 years ago when they discovered HIV, the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)."

Epilogue:76"Doctor who identified AIDS virus warns of widespread famine." Irish Times, June 29, 2001.

Epilogue:77"Outsmarting AIDS." Forbes, Sepember 17, 2001.

Epilogue:78"How NCI led the way." Washington Post, September 2, 2001.

Epilogue:79Cohen, J. "The new face of AIDS." Science 272(5720):1877, June 28, 1996.

Epilogue:80"A century of science." Time, March 29, 1999.

Epilogue:81"Institutional Response to the HIV Blood Test patent dispute and Related Matters." Staff of the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, 1994 (unpublished).

Epilogue:82http://www.ihv.org

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